From the Super Mario Wiki
Mushroom Platforms are semi-solid platforms that are shaped like a mushroom. These platforms were introduced in Super Mario Bros. in the Warp Zone in World 4-2, where they were initially solid platforms. Mushroom Platforms have since appeared in most Mario games.
In the Mario Kart series, Mushroom Platforms have appeared in Mushroom Gorge. Green Mushroom Platforms are standard platforms, while the player can bounce off the red Mushroom Platforms, and can glide off of blue Mushroom Platforms (Mario Kart 7 only).
A similarly-themed object known as a Mushroom Trampoline that appears in Super Mario 3D Land and Super Mario 3D World act similarly to the red Mushroom Platforms from the Mario Kart series. In these games, they are colored orange with yellow spots.
Mushroom Platforms also appear in the Golden Plains and Rainbow Road stages in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS. The ones in the former stage are semi-soft platforms, while the one in the latter is not, as it is one of the stage's main fighting arenas.
Mushroom Platforms appear as placeable objects in Super Mario Maker. Their height and length can be adjusted in the level editor. When Mushroom Platforms are placed underwater, their appearance changes to resemble coral. When they are placed in Airships in all styles except for New Super Mario Bros. U, their appearance becomes more metallic.