From the Super Mario Wiki
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Pulse Beams are objects that appear in Super Mario Odyssey. They act similarly to Ring Burners and Ring Beamers in that they will shoot a large ring of electricity, but unlike either of those, Pulse Beams must be activated by being hit with Cappy or enemies, such as Bullet Bills, instead of being activated when Mario is close to them. Therefore, they do not seem to be sentient. Their electric rings can destroy some blocks in Mario's path, but will also hurt him and any enemies they touch. Additionally, the rings can cause other Pulse Beams to be activated when collided with them, which in some cases can cause an infinite loop. They cannot be destroyed by any means.