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Mama Mario (referred to as Mama and Mama Mia by her children, maiden name Rigassi), the fictional mother of Mario and Luigi, is a recurring minor character throughout the Super Mario series and its spin-offs, particularly in The Super Mario Bros. Super Show!, where she was both referenced throughout the television series' run and made two appearances in the live-action segments. A version of Mario's mother made her first appearance in Super Mario Issun-bōshi. The Super Mario Bros. Super Show! was responsible for the expansion of the character; to date it is the only source that has shown her face or explored her personality, developing her as a comically strict parental figure who ultimately cared very much for her boys. Though Mario and Luigi fear her temper and punishments on the show, both boys return their mother's love. Mama Mario's connection to Mario and Luigi's father is unclear. The two are shown to live with each other in all of Papa's appearances, and the fact that Mama has a maiden name implies that she is or was married, but their relationship and backstory remain unexplored.