From the Super Mario Wiki, the Mario encyclopedia
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The Parthenon (in Greek: Παρθενών, Parthenó̱n) is a temple dedicated of Athena, the patron of Athens. Luigi visits this temple when he travels to Athens in Mario is Missing! when Koopa Troopas steal a Parthenon Column, causing it to shut down. He eventually makes his way through the city, fighting the right Koopa Troopa to obtain the Column, and after answering a series of questions (listed below), he is able to return the column through the Parthenon's information booth to its rightful place.
The Parthenon was built to honor Athena, goddess of Athens, who gave Greece's capital city its name, Athens. The Parthenon was erected between 447 and 438 BC by the same architects who built the Acropolis. The temple is famous for its quantity of Doric columns. There are eight columns on both ends and seventeen along each side. An enormous statue of the goddess once stood in the Parthenon's great hall. She was 39 feet high, her hands and face made from ivory. Her dress was 2,205 pounds of pure gold!