Ludwig von Koopa

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"Ludwig" redirects here. For information about the musician he is named after, see Ludwig van Beethoven.
Ludwig von Koopa
Ludwig von Koopa's artwork from New Super Mario Bros. U
Species Koopa
First appearance Super Mario Bros. 3 (1988)
Latest appearance Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit (2020)
Latest portrayal David J. Goldfarb (2014-present)
“Whatever. I’m not impressed! Time for a real leader to step to the plate!”
Ludwig, Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam

Ludwig von Koopa (known as Kooky von Koopa in the cartoons) is the eldest[1] of the Koopalings, a clan of seven siblings[2] that act as leaders of the Koopa Troop under Bowser (originally considered his children with Ludwig as heir to the throne).[3] He is also their self-proclaimed leader, and is hinted in Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey to be of a high enough rank to directly receive orders from and give status reports to Bowser. As shown since the Super Mario Picture Books, Ludwig is a conceited show-off, with the recent official bios also underlining his intelligence. In terms of physical appearance, his most notable traits are his large, wild, blue hair, his overbite on the upper snout, and his eyebrows that are kept at a peculiar angle, conferring a serious, mature look. He resembles and was named after composer Ludwig van Beethoven.


Super Mario series[edit]

Super Mario Bros. 3[edit]

LudwigSMB3Ani.gif Ludwig von Koopa's sprite from the SNES remake of Super Mario Bros. 3. Ludwig von Koopa
Artwork of Ludwig von Koopa from Super Mario Bros. 3
Ludwig from Super Mario Bros. 3

In Super Mario Bros. 3, Ludwig is the boss of Pipe Land. He is the eldest of the Koopalings[1] and Bowser's second in command.[3] He steals the blue magic wand of Pipe Land's king, whom he turns into a Piranha Plant or Yoshi in the original and Super Mario All-Stars versions of the game, respectively.

In battle, he is able to generate earthquakes that stun Mario after landing from jumps; furthermore, he attacks generating magic blasts with his magic wand and retreats in his shell both after being hit by Mario and as a form of attack among the others, this being his unique trait in the game.

The Game Boy Advance version expands Ludwig's role slightly with the (originally Japanese-only) e-reader level Koopaling Confusion, where he hides out at a docking area for maritime vessels. If the player takes the bottom route to fight Ludwig, he will fight Mario or Luigi in a flat cabin, and will end up being defeated in one stomp by either of the Mario Bros. However, if the player goes to the end of the armada, they will fight Ludwig in a cabin with an uneven floor, and he will require the usual three stomps to be defeated. His level acts as the penultimate level to the final e-reader level card (counting Bowser's Airship 1 and Bowser's Airship 2 as one level).

Super Mario World[edit]

Mario battling Ludwig in Super Mario World

Ludwig was assigned to occupy the fourth castle of Dinosaur Land, located in the Twin Bridges, in Super Mario World. This is the only time in the Super Mario series where he is not the last Koopaling to be fought.

During his battle with Mario, Ludwig utilizes a unique combat strategy: spitting fireballs, sliding around in his spiked shell, and occasionally making huge leaps. Mario or Luigi can stomp on him three times, hit him with twelve fireballs, or use a combination of the two methods. After defeating Ludwig, Mario destroys his castle by detonating explosive charges near the bottom of the building, sending it flying into a nearby hill which is subsequently bandaged in the spot where it gets hit. The text that accompanies this suggests that he isolated himself to compose Koopa symphonies, at least until Mario showed up to ruin his work; however, this was added by the localizers, as the original Japanese version uses uniform text for the defeat of all seven Koopalings and does not even use individual names for them.

Ludwig is the only Koopaling whose battle is not reused for another Koopaling. Also, like the others, his in-game design does not match official artwork: in his case, he uses the palette intended for the yellow Koopa Troopas, despite the existence of more appropriate palettes in the game's graphics, such as that used for the green Koopa Troopas, or the teal palette used by Buzzy Beetles and Morton in the cast roll, the latter of which would have matched up with his Super Mario Bros. 3 palette. Furthermore, in the game's cast roll Ludwig uses an alternate color palette, a lighter-skinned pinkish-purple palette with which would fit the shells of Roy Koopa and Wendy O. Koopa as they appear in game, and matched Roy's Super Mario Bros. 3 palette. For unknown reasons, his cast roll sprite depicts him with the same teeth as Morton's.

New Super Mario Bros. Wii[edit]

Mario faces Ludwig von Koopa at his tower, in New Super Mario Bros. Wii.
Ludwig in his tower

Ludwig and the other Koopalings reappeared in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, after six years of absence, now alongside Bowser Jr. His physical appearance remains relatively unchanged, though Ludwig's shell is now blue instead of green, and he is depicted with blue hair in-game.

He first appears in the opening scene, where Ludwig, Bowser Jr. and the other Koopalings jump out of a cake at Princess Peach's birthday party. They trap her inside it by throwing the cake on her. They then flee on their Airship. Mario, Luigi, Yellow Toad, and Blue Toad travel through the Mushroom Kingdom to defeat them, as well as Magikoopa and Bowser, and save Princess Peach. He appears as both the fortress and castle boss of World 7.

The stage for the fortress battle is a straight ground with a pit on both sides. When he sees Mario, he will look away and snicker. When battling him at his tower, before reaching him, he conjures a blue fireball from his wand which slowly homes into the players. He is the fastest to cast a spell out of all the Koopalings. After that, he then jumps really high and Flutter Jumps in the air for a short period of time. After landing, Ludwig then conjures another homing fireball if he is not stomped on. When jumped on, Ludwig retreats back to his shell and spins it to the left and right of the stage in an attempt to hit the players (accompanied by his homing fireballs if it has not made contact with anything yet). When he is stomped on three times, he is defeated and retreats to his castle.

Ice Mario, battling Ludwig in his castle

The stage for the castle battle consists of three separate, rising platforms which Magikoopa activated with his magic. The platforms rise up and down during the fight and the sides move in unison while the middle does not. Falling between the spaces between the platforms results in losing a life. The characters do not get affected by the platforms rising (the players jump normally as if the platforms are not even rising at all, only the background moves).

In the castle, unlike the tower battle, his fireballs no longer home in, but instead they split into four and it takes more time to cast them. He uses his Flutter Jump ability to get to another section of a platform. Players can tell in which platform he is going to land due to his legs being visible on the screen, Flutter Jumping for a few seconds before landing. When Ludwig is hit, he slides around in his shell, but he will only slide on the platform he is on, rather than sliding to another platform. He also spends a very limited amount of time in his shell. When he is hit two times, he shoots out another four fireballs after he casts his first set of fireballs. When finally defeated, Ludwig falls off-screen and Mario gets the key to World 8. If Mario hits Ludwig at a certain angle the third time, both Mario and Ludwig fall into the abyss, causing Mario to lose a life.

Although Ludwig fell during his castle battle with Mario, he later is seen along with the other Koopalings getting Bowser back up, only to have Bowser's castle fall on top of all of them.

Ludwig is one of the only two bosses fought in the same order as Super Mario Bros. 3 (the other being Larry, who was the first one Mario fought in both games). Unlike in that game, Ludwig no longer causes tremors when landing; this ability is instead given to Morton, alongside Roy.

Ludwig has an audible voice in-game for the first time. He is portrayed by Mike Vaughn, who gives Ludwig a much deeper voice than the cartoon series' actor.

New Super Mario Bros. 2[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa battle
Mario facing Ludwig in New Super Mario Bros. 2

Ludwig, alongside the other Koopalings, reappears in New Super Mario Bros. 2. He is the boss of World 5-Castle. He once again looks away and snickers before battling Mario. In his battle, Ludwig uses his Flutter Jump ability to grab one of the five chains hanging from the ceiling to attack Mario with three blue fireballs, while Mario has to use the five gray pipe cannons on the floor to blast himself against Ludwig fast enough. After that, Ludwig falls onto the floor and gets dizzy. Then Mario can jump on his head. After stomping him once, he starts to shoot four fireballs. After two stomps, the chain Ludwig hangs on starts to swing, making it harder for Mario to hit him but still shoots four fireballs. After another stomp, Ludwig is defeated, leaving the key to World 6.

Ludwig rejoined his companions at Bowser's castle, where they attempted to petrify Mario with their Koopa Clown Car's petrification device. He also aided Bowser alongside the rest of the Koopalings by causing him to grow larger, but it resulted in him and the others being knocked into a lava pit by Bowser due to his increased size. He and the other Koopalings survived, however, and attempted to help Bowser by airlifting him with the Koopa Clown Car, but this resulted in it crashing due to it being unable to handle the combined weight of both them and Bowser. Ludwig was some distance away from the crash site with his head down, apparently sulking.

New Super Mario Bros. U / New Super Luigi U / New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe[edit]

Mario fights Ludwig on his airship

Ludwig, along with the rest of the Koopalings, Bowser Jr., and Bowser, appears in the Wii U game New Super Mario Bros. U and its Nintendo Switch port, and once again serves as the final Koopaling boss to be fought, specifically in the world Meringue Clouds. He once again turns and snickers before battling Mario. His boss battle, like Larry and Iggy's, involves him using his magic wand, and like Roy, his battle takes place in the crow's nest.

In battle, he levitates in the air while making two clones of himself, and all three Ludwigs will blast fireballs at Mario before dropping onto the ground. If one of the clones is jumped on, it will simply disappear. There are four ways to find out which is the real one. The one that is the real one fires three fireballs, while the clones fire two. The clones keep their eyes half-open, and tend to assume the real Ludwig's pre-battle idle pose while not levitating. The real Ludwig will also drop to the ground last, after the clones, as well as laugh while dropping. Finally, Mario always looks at the real Ludwig if he can see him directly, just as he does with the other bosses. When the fight starts off, after shooting their fireballs, the clones disappear before landing. After the first stomp, the clones do not disappear. After the second stomp, not only do all three Ludwigs shoot faster, but swap positions, though the real Ludwig still shoots three fireballs. After being stomped on three times, Ludwig falls out of the crow's nest and off-screen, and his airship is destroyed by Mario. He is last seen hanging from Bowser's tail along with the other Koopalings as they all fly away on Bowser Jr.'s heavily damaged airship at the conclusion of the game.

Ludwig has his own personalized airship, with his face as the bow, and his blue-colored shell at the top. The stern of his ship has a green color design, similar to his former shell color from past appearances. Like most of the airships, Ludwig's airship is equipped with a propeller at the back of his ship as well as another one placed just beneath the crow's nest. The airship is equipped with two cannons, one on each side. There are also orange lids on top of the cannons used for closing and opening the cannons. The airship has a unique feature. The hull is rimmed with green, and there is a balcony-like platform at the base of its mast. Like Roy, the interior of Ludwig's ship is unknown since the player never gets the chance to enter the cabin and instead fights Ludwig at the crow's nest.

Additionally, to beat the game, Ludwig is the only Koopaling that needs to be fought.

Strangely, one of Ludwig's laughs is higher-pitched than his normal voice.

Ludwig and the other Koopalings return in New Super Luigi U. Like the other bosses, Ludwig is fought in the same way and the same world as in New Super Mario Bros. U. He is the boss of Ludwig's Block-Press Castle.

Super Mario Maker 2[edit]

Ludwig's new sprites in Super Mario Maker 2
Ludwig's new sprites in Super Mario Maker 2
Ludwig's new sprites in Super Mario Maker 2

Ludwig appears alongside the other Koopalings as a placeable enemy in the final update for Super Mario Maker 2, being available in every game style except the Super Mario 3D World style. Ludwig receives an original sprite for his appearance in the Super Mario Bros. style, as well as a new Super Mario World sprite. Ludwig attacks by shooting three beams at once (five after being hit twice), then flutter-jumping. When given wings, Ludwig can float in the air for longer and shoot two waves of magic.

Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros.[edit]

The Koopalings kidnap Princess Peach in Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros.
Ludwig as he appears in Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros. (bottom right)

The Koopalings were featured in the Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros., a set of three Japanese OVAs. In the Mario retelling of the story "Momotaro", Ludwig and the other Koopalings appear as minions of Bowser, aiding him in abducting Princess Toadstool. In "Shirayukihime" (or Snow White), the Koopalings also appear in similar roles; Ludwig ends up being beaten by Mario like the other Koopalings.

Super Mario World: Mario to Yoshi no Bōken Land[edit]

Ludwig appeared in the interactive Anime adaptation of Super Mario World. On Chocolate Island, he, alongside Lemmy, Wendy, Larry, Morton, and Roy, ambushed Mario and Luigi at a fortress. He alongside his brothers fought Mario after Wendy nearly fell into lava, but Mario broke open a red block to get a Cape Feather and sent them flying.

DIC cartoons[edit]

Kooky Von Koopa
Kooky as he appears in The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 episode "Up, Up, and a Koopa".

Ludwig also appears prominently in The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 and the Super Mario World cartoons produced by DIC Entertainment and Nintendo. Here, Ludwig is portrayed as having a mad scientist-like personality, inventing various gadgets for his father. In the cartoons, Ludwig von Koopa is renamed Kooky von Koopa and has very messy hair, is smaller in size, has only one spike on his shell, has a usually twisted or crooked tail, possesses an unusual laugh, his eyes are larger and has a vague Germanic accent.

In the Super Mario World cartoon, Kooky appeared exactly the same with the exception of the episode The Wheel Thing, where his snout was colored the same as the rest of his body. His silent appearance in Rock TV colors his snout a lighter shade, as in The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3.

Kooky is voiced by Michael Stark.

List of The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 episodes featuring Kooky von Koopa[edit]


“That's music to my ears!”
Ludwig, Super Mario Adventures
Ludwig, playing video games in Super Mario Adventures

Ludwig appears in the Nintendo Comics System's story Bowser Knows Best, and the Super Mario Adventures comic, where he and his siblings aid Bowser in his attempt to marry Princess Peach. Here, he is portrayed as the most cynical of the Koopalings, disbelieving that Princess Peach would ever agree to marry his father. He is also in charge of communication with Bowser through their television.

He makes another short appearance in the Club Nintendo comic "Super Mario: Erholung? Nein, danke!", where he works as a mechanic for KoopAir. The plane he is working on takes off before he even finishes his work.

Nintendo Adventure Books[edit]

In Leaping Lizards, either Ludwig or Larry compete alongside five of their siblings in the International Mushroom Games.

In Koopa Capers, Ludwig and his brothers have their wands stolen by Wendy, who disappears with them shortly afterward, intent on overthrowing their father with her own army, and a super wand she intends to create by fusing her own wand with her brothers'. If Luigi, who had been coerced by Bowser into searching for Wendy, tracks her down to her hideout, Bowser and the male Koopalings, who had been following him, will barge in after Luigi, but decide to stave off punishing Wendy for her mutiny if she helps search for the hiding Luigi. When Luigi finally decides to reveal himself, Ludwig is the first of the family to discover him and rush him. If Luigi had acquired Boom Boom's socks earlier in his adventure, he can toss them into Wendy's simmering wand combination potion, which will release magical fumes that knock the entire Koopa family and their minions out for at least a week.

In Pipe Down!, Ludwig appears as the main antagonist, having set up a base in a chamber within Pipe World, complete with a giant, magical pipe organ filled with coins, a performance stage and a Piranha Plant string quartet. After his family refuses to have any part in his new basketball-themed opera, Dribbling Beauty, Ludwig sends a pair of enchanted sneakers to Princess Toadstool, disguised as a gift for her ninety-ninth birthday (in mushroom years). Once the princess puts the sneakers on, Ludwig has them bring her to his lair by playing his organ; with Princess Toadstool in his clutches, Ludwig then forces her to take the starring role of the Prima Slamdunkerina in his opera, which he intends to show all over Dark World as part of a nine-year tour. In the book's best ending, Mario and Luigi track Ludwig and the princess down, destroy his organ, and cause most of his lair to collapse in the process, which manages to somehow cure Ludwig's partial deafness (an homage to the actual deafness of his real-life namesake, the composer Ludwig van Beethoven). While distracted by his newfound ability to hear with perfect clarity for the first time in fifteen years, Ludwig is knocked out when the princess throws a basketball at his head.

Mario is Missing![edit]

Luigi fighting Ludwig von Koopa in Mario is Missing! on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
Ludwig, as seen in the SNES version of Mario is Missing!

In Mario is Missing!, Ludwig von Koopa, along with a few of the other Koopa Kids, invades Earth with Bowser as part of a plot to flood the world by melting Antarctica. Guarding a corridor of Bowser's castle, Ludwig battles Luigi, who plans on stopping Bowser's plot and saving the kidnapped Mario. He is the last Koopa Kid encountered in the MS-DOS release, while he is the first in the Super Nintendo Entertainment System release. In the former, he is also referred to as "Ludwig van Koopa" by Mario. In the latter, Ludwig appears when Luigi arrives back at the castle after clearing the last of the first floor's cities. Ludwig runs around the castle like mad; however, like the other bosses in the game, he cannot harm Luigi, simply running past him instead. Once Luigi jumps on Ludwig a total of six times, he disappears in a puff of smoke. Defeating Ludwig in combat enables Luigi to move on. In the former, he obstructs Luigi's path while conducting a baton to an unheard beat. Like the others, all he can take is a fireball. He does not appear in the NES release, like the other Koopa Kids.

Yoshi's Safari[edit]

Ludwig in his mech during Yoshi's Safari

The Koopalings later help Bowser conquer Jewelry Land in the game Yoshi's Safari. Ludwig occupies the Mushroom Land region of Jewelry Land.

In battle, Ludwig uses a large robot brontosaurus with four legs, a spiked shell, and a retractable head (in which Ludwig himself is stationed). Two cannons are attached to the head. The robot's weak spot is a large red area which Ludwig normally guards with the robot's head. However, as he has to move while he shoots, the red spot often becomes temporarily visible, allowing Mario to destroy it. After the robot explodes, the pieces salvage themselves together into a fighter-style mech, which has fists that fly off to attack Yoshi and Mario. Once this robot is also destroyed, Ludwig concedes defeat.

Hotel Mario[edit]

Ludwig (compressed)
Ludwig in Hotel Mario

In Hotel Mario, Ludwig appears as the boss in Ludwig's Thump Castle Hotel in Ludwig's Frantic Lab. In this game, Ludwig has the ability to teleport and shoot blasts of lightning from his hands. Ludwig is slow and primarily changes floor via teleportation, though like some other bosses, he will devour Mario or Luigi whole if he comes across them in an elevator. Unlike other bosses with this ability, he does not spit their cap out after doing so. Ultimately, Ludwig is defeated by the Mario Bros.

Mario & Luigi series[edit]

Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga[edit]

Ludwig facing Mario and Luigi in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga

After years of absence, the Koopalings finally made a reappearance in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga, acting as guards in Bowser's Castle during Bowletta's invasion of the Beanbean Kingdom. He is the fourth Koopaling to be fought, like in Super Mario World.

Once the Mario Bros. enter his room, Ludwig attacks them by moving inside his shell, which they have to jump over quickly, or else they will have to start over from the beginning. However, Ludwig sometimes fakes the brothers out. Afterwards, Ludwig jumps into the air. Mario and Luigi, confused, attempt to leave the room, only for Ludwig to return, roar angrily at the Mario Bros., and proceed to rush into them to attack them.

Like in Super Mario World, Ludwig attacks Mario and Luigi by shooting balls of fire and zooming around in his shell in battle, as well as a spinning attack like Iggy. Defeating him lowers the spikes preventing Mario from hitting a switch, raising a platform and allowing the Mario Bros. to continue to Roy.

Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa in Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam.

Ludwig reappears in Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam. He first appears in Doop Doop Dunes with Larry, Wendy and Roy where they capture Mario, Luigi, and Paper Mario. In the Twinsy Tropics Dungeon, as Mario & co. head to the pipe that leads them to Bowser's Castle, they are stopped by Larry and Ludwig, telling them they need a pass to enter. Ludwig and Larry then briefly attack the Mario gang inside the pipe until Starlow unleashes a "Supernova Sparkle" attack. Afterwards, Ludwig and Larry exit out of the pipe and proceed to fight Mario & co. Ludwig and Larry are quickly defeated and forced to retreat. Ludwig is encountered one last time on top of Neo Bowser Castle, alongside the rest of the Koopalings. Ludwig briefly claims that he is a leader, to which the other Koopalings deny and as Ludwig attempts to explain what they are as a group, he realizes that he should be focused on beating Mario and gets ready for combat. Ludwig and Larry then battle Mario & co. one last time. After the battle, Ludwig utters some last words, saying that he has been dethroned, just before exploding.

In both of the boss battles against Ludwig and Larry in the main story, Ludwig draws Battle Cards from his deck, one at a time. In order to use them, he and Larry must collect Dark Star Points by successfully damaging Mario, Luigi, and Paper Mario. The Battle Cards are drawn in a specific order; when the last card is used, Ludwig begins the cycle again by drawing the first card. Ludwig will never use Battle Cards consecutively; at least one attack must occur for a Battle Card to be used.

First battle

Effect Dark Star Points needed
Raises the Koopalings' SPEED. 2
Nullifies the damage dealt to each Koopaling two times. 4
Raises the Koopalings' POW. 3
Deals 60 damage to Mario, Luigi, and Paper Mario. 5

Second battle

Effect Dark Star Points needed
Raises the Koopalings' SPEED. 2
Shrinks Mario, Luigi, and Paper Mario. 4
Raises the Koopalings' POW. 3
For one turn, causes damage to a Koopaling to heal him instead. 5
Deals 180 damage to Mario, Luigi, and Paper Mario. 6

When both Koopalings attack, Ludwig always makes the first move. They either retreat in their shell and attack the Mario Bros. first and then Paper Mario, or they try to hide behind a giant bomb that some Shy Guys try to deliver to the Bros., or they attack with their magic wand. In the latter case, Ludwig always attacks the Mario Bros. When both of them are defeated, he does not attack and sticks to using his Battle Cards.
Like Larry, Roy and Wendy, he creates giant magic fireballs with his wand when he is fighting alone and does not gain Dark Star Points anymore.

Ludwig and Larry are also summoned by Dry Bowser in the Boss Battle Ring after Wendy and Roy have been defeated; in this case, the two Koopalings do not gain Dark Star Points, and Ludwig no longer uses Battle Cards.

Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions[edit]

“Bwahaha! You should’ve known I’m more than you can handle! I’m going all-out right from the start! It’s max-power Ludwig time, baby!”
Ludwig, Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions

In the remake of Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga, Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions, Ludwig's battle is changed significantly, in addition to him now having dialogue. The battle itself is similar to that of Shrowser from Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time and Thunder Sass from Mario & Luigi: Dream Team, as Ludwig does not let the bros. attack. Ludwig will create a giant ball of magic and shoot it into the air, which slowly comes down on a brother. As the orb falls, Ludwig will fire smaller blasts from his wand, which need to be blocked by hitting them with the bros.' hammers. Once the giant ball gets low enough, the targeted brother must hammer it to make it fly back into Ludwig, instantly knocking him out, ending the fight; failure to do so will result in a Game Over as both Bros. will get KO'd instantly with a fixed 999 damage (or 1998 if one already got KO'd before then).

Ludwig also appears in the added on alternate story mode Minion Quest: The Search for Bowser as a Ranged-type ally. He first appears on the Hoohoo Mountain where he and Lemmy try to find Bowser together after Fawful attacked the flying Koopa Cruiser and made it explode. Later, he and the other Koopalings get brainwashed by Fawful and try to conquer the Beanbean Kingdom afterwards. Ludwig is returned to normal after Captain Goomba defeats him in Bowser's Castle. His stats spread includes having high POW and DEF, but his strength mostly lies in DEF.

Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey[edit]

“But enough talk. It's time to face the music, lady. And my piano's all tuned up.”
Ludwig, Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey
Artwork of Ludwig von Koopa from Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey
Artwork of Ludwig from Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey.

Along with the other Koopalings, Ludwig appears in Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey, in the game's new side story Bowser Jr.'s Journey. He is one of two Koopalings to not be fought, the other being Lemmy. In the beginning, as a test to see Bowser Jr.'s fighting abilities (largely due to Bowser Jr. deciding to just travel with a Mechakoopa over finding the actual ingredients for the blorbs), has Captain Goomba, Captain Koopa, Captain Boo, and Captain Shy Guy fight Bowser Jr. After Bowser Jr. passes his tests, Ludwig and the rest of the Koopalings (besides Lemmy) go with to find the ingredients for Skeletone Formula:D. At Dimble Wood, Ludwig grew suspicious that someone was watching him, and also had gnawing concerns that something bad was happening at Bowser's Castle, and departed the group to investigate, although he was also annoyed with Bowser Jr. not listening to him.

It is eventually implied that Beef had disposed of Ludwig; however, Ludwig managed to pose as Beef after tricking him with a decoy and then locking him in a Bob-omb storage room while crafting his disguise afterward, consequentially also learning key details about the BFF's plans, though he was forced to help knock Iggy off a cliff to remain in-character in front of his "allies.", and silently felt remorseful for attacking Iggy. He eventually reveals himself, with his admitting he deliberately used himself as bait to lure Kaley into a trap. Ludwig apologizes to Bowser Jr. for leaving his side, but becomes proud of him when he learns that he has started to mature and seeks to help the minions, at which point Ludwig rejoins Bowser Jr.'s side for the rest of the game.

As the team closes in on Bowser's Castle, they are ambushed by the Best Fitness Friends, now alongside the real Beef, which shocks Ludwig. Ludwig gets into a pose-off with Dieter, although he along with Bowser Jr. then get badly beaten up by the group, who also threatened to throw Wendy into the lava. Luckily, the four flag captains come to the rescue and they help Ludwig and the others drive off the Best Fitness Friends.

In the ending, Ludwig and Bowser Jr. proceeded to pose with each other during the resulting festivities of the defeat of Fawful's forces.

Ludwig has a unused sprite of him with a Clown Car, like Iggy.

Super Smash Bros. series[edit]

The Super Mario franchise emblem, from Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U.
Super Smash Bros. fighter
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate
Game appearances
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS (unlockable)
Super Smash Bros. for Wii U
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate (unlockable)
Special moves
Standard:  Clown Cannon
Side:  Clown Kart Dash
Up:  Abandon Ship!
Down:  Mechakoopa
Final Smash:  Shadow Mario Paint
Battle entrance
Appears from the background in his Junior Clown Car and gives a mocking gesture.

Super Smash Bros. Brawl[edit]

Ludwig appears in Super Smash Bros. Brawl as a sticker using his artwork from Super Mario Bros. 3. When equipped, it increases the power of explosive attacks by 8. This makes him the only member of the Koopalings to appear in the series prior to Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS.

Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U[edit]

Ludwig (alongside the other Koopalings) appears as a playable character accessible via Bowser Jr.'s alternate costumes in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Super Smash Bros. for Wii U. He is unlockable in the former game and available from the start in the latter. His attacks and statistics are identical to Bowser Jr.'s, though he is referred to by his own name by the announcer and has his own voice clips. Ludwig can also appear in place of Bowser Jr. in All-Star mode (like the other Koopalings).

Like the other Koopalings, he is actually driving a mass-produced version of the Junior Clown Car (as noted by the yellow light bulbs that serve as its eyes). The rim and propeller of his Junior Clown Car are colored blue (his signature color). He also reuses his voice clips from his appearance in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, thus he is voiced by Mike Vaughn.

The title given to Ludwig in the Boxing Ring is "Pompous Prodigy"[4][5] in the Wii U version.

Super Smash Bros. Ultimate[edit]

In Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, Ludwig (alongside the other Koopalings) returns as a playable character accessible via Bowser Jr.'s alternate costumes. He is once again an unlockable character, like in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS. Just like in the previous game, his attacks and statistics are identical to Bowser Jr.'s, though he is referred to by his own name by the announcer and has his own voice clips. Unlike in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U, all seven Koopalings (Ludwig included) now use their magic wands for any occasion where Bowser Jr. would use his hammer. These occasions include all corresponding attacks, their side taunt, and one of their victory poses.

Unlike other Koopalings, as well as Bowser Jr., Ludwig is currently fought in only one Spirit Battle (Toy-Con Car).

Mario Kart series[edit]

Mario Kart 8 / Mario Kart 8 Deluxe[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa outside the Twisted Mansion course from Mario Kart 8
Ludwig in Mario Kart 8

Ludwig, alongside the rest of the Koopalings, appears as a playable character for the first time in Mario Kart 8, where he is an unlockable character. This time, he is voiced by David J. Goldfarb. His nickname in a Japanese Nintendo Direct for Mario Kart 8 is 「目立ちたがりの悪役ヒーロー」[6], or "Showoff Villain-Hero" (localized as the "Conductor of Chaos"[7] or "Showy Anti-Hero"[8]). Just like Bowser and the other Koopalings, his emblem is shown to be a deep blue silhouette of his own head on a black background.

Ludwig is a middleweight racer, giving him relatively balanced attributes for most of his stats. He is used for the Staff Ghost for 3DS Piranha Plant Slide, making it a reference to Ludwig being the boss of Pipe Land in Super Mario Bros. 3. Ludwig also has a business which appears as a sponsor in this game called Ludwig Painting.

Ludwig's main color for his Standard parts and Pipe Frame is his signature blue, and his secondary color is green. The color scheme selection of his other parts is also based on blue, making it similar to that of Blue Miis. Exceptions to this are his Sneeker and Sport Bike.

Ludwig returns in the Nintendo Switch port Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, this time available from the start. He shares stats with only Mario and medium Miis.

Mario Kart Tour[edit]

Ludwig appears in Mario Kart Tour as a Normal character, being very easy to unlock. His special item is the Dash Ring. In the closed beta test, however, his special item was the Double Bob-ombs.

Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit[edit]

Artwork of Ludwig von Koopa for Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit
Artwork of Ludwig in Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit

Ludwig appears alongside the other Koopalings and Bowser Jr. as one of the racing opponents in the augmented reality game Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit. He is seen using his personalized Koopa Clown from Mario Kart 8 Deluxe.[9]

Puzzle & Dragons: Super Mario Bros. Edition[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa
Ludwig in Puzzle & Dragons: Super Mario Bros. Edition

Ludwig appears in Puzzle & Dragons: Super Mario Bros. Edition as a Fire attribute character, appearing as the boss of both the World 7 Castle and Airship. Ludwig joins the player when ★World 7-Airship is completed. His Skill when allied is Ludwig's Volcano, which changes all Orbs into Fire Orbs, and his Awoken Skill is "Skill Boost", reducing the number of turns required to use Skills when entering a course.

As of the 2.0 update, Ludwig can also transform into two different variations with enough Transformation Items, each with their own unique Awoken Skills. Ludwig & Dry Bones has the "Fire Boost" Awoken Skill which raises the attack power of Fire attribute allies if a horizontal line of Fire Orbs are cleared, while Ludwig & Yellow Koopa Paratroopa has the "Twin Target" Awoken Skill which raises attack power and attacks two foes for a given ally's attributes that has four Orbs cleared for.

Mario & Sonic series[edit]

Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games[edit]

Ludwig makes his first playable appearance in the Mario & Sonic series, not counting his Mii costume in both Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games and Mario & Sonic at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games, in Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games[10]. In the Nintendo 3DS version, Ludwig is only playable in Table Tennis. He is the only Koopaling to be a default character. He is shown to be high in skill, and average everywhere else.

Ludwig does not appear in the Wii U version, but the aforementioned costume based on him returns.

Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020[edit]

Ludwig in Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020
Ludwig in Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020.

Ludwig reappears as a Technique-type guest character in Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020, this time exclusive to the Fencing event.

In the story mode, when Luigi and Tails run into Ludwig at Makuhari Messe Venue B, Ludwig steals the battery they earned from Larry and Wendy retrieves it. Ludwig demands a fencing match where the winner earns the battery. Waluigi accepts the match, leaving Ludwig impressed by his "flair". After Ludwig is beaten, the battery gets charged from the excitement of the spectators, allowing Luigi and Tails to receive it. Afterwards, Ludwig and Wendy allow them to have the battery.

Paper Mario: Color Splash[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa in Paper Mario: Color Splash.
Ludwig's introductory pose in Paper Mario: Color Splash
“I’ve been waiting, Mario! I designed this weapon specifically for you. I think you’re gonna LOVE it. Gaze upon its glory! Cower in fear of its might!”
Ludwig, Paper Mario: Color Splash

Ludwig makes his Paper Mario series debut in Paper Mario: Color Splash. He appears in Fort Cobalt, where he battles Mario on his warship, the Super Ludship. In the battle against him, the projectiles fired by the warship's cannons can be tossed back using the Tail Card. After the first hit, Ludwig orders two Koopa Paratroopas to come and help him; if they are defeated but the ship is not further damaged, two more Paratroopas come at the beginning of each turn. After the ship is damaged two times, Ludwig orders two Spikes to help him; those Spikes immediately draw out spiked balls to be thrown at Mario and stay on the ship. This means they cannot be directly attacked by Mario, who must instead use the Tail Card to toss the spiked balls back at them. Furthermore, the damaged cannons fire a projectile with a low trajectory, causing it to roll on the floor before reaching Mario.

When Ludwig’s warship is hit three times by its projectile, it sinks and leaves Ludwig in the water. He then enters his submarine, the Super Ludsub, which can fire missiles. Using the Balloons Thing Card, the submarine can be carried out of the water and onto the fort’s floor. However, if a Replica of the Balloons is used, Ludwig will fire a missile at the Balloons Replica, rendering it useless. If Mario does not use the Balloons, Ludwig will attack with one missile. On the next turn, Ludwig will not attack. On the turn after that, Ludwig will instantly defeat Mario with a "Meteor Missile Storm", sending out 6 missiles, each dealing 35 HP of damage if the attack connects. The first one can be blocked or deflected with the Tail, but the rest are unavoidable.

If Mario uses the Balloons but does not attack the Super Ludsub, the balloons will eventually pop, the submarine will fall on the floor and Ludwig will start attacking again with missiles, although this time he will not resort to a Meteor Missile Storm, instead attacking with one missile at a time. When Mario destroys the submarine, Ludwig takes a lot of damage, and proceeds to fight on his own by performing a shell spin; sometimes he will attempt to hit Mario on the rebound from the first attack. After the battle, he admits defeat and his minions hand over the blue Big Paint Star.

In the game code, it is revealed that the Super Ludship too is supposed to have a final attack that instantly defeats Mario, the Lud-Cannon Blast,[11] that is hinted by Ludwig, likely a few turns before, with a sentence that implicitly suggests the player to use the Tail Card.[12] According to the game's data, the Super Ludship would fire many projectiles dealing 25 HP of damage each;[13] in the final game, there does not seem to be a way to trigger the event that leads to said final attack.

Among the Koopalings in Paper Mario: Color Splash, Ludwig is the only one who specifically says that he has operated on his own: desiring to fight the “world-famous Super Mario” at least once, he used the blue Big Paint Star to lure Mario in his base.

Ludwig's appearance in the game is largely based on his artwork used in the Super Mario Bros. Encyclopedia and in other material released for the Super Mario Bros. 30th Anniversary. As such, not only does he have black eyes, like many other paper characters, but his eyebrows are black instead of blue. His initial pose while he introduces himself is also derived from said artwork. At the beginning, when he is in the dark, his eyes also display eyeshine.

Dr. Mario World[edit]

Icon of Dr. Ludwig from Dr. Mario World
Ludwig's icon in Dr. Mario World

Ludwig takes on the role of a doctor in Dr. Mario World, where he is known as Dr. Ludwig. Dr. Ludwig is available as a special stage reward in World 26. Dr. Ludwig's skill involves ice, where in stage mode it breaks them from up to 10 different objects one time, while in versus mode it hides a number of viruses in the opponent's play area in ice. Viruses already covered in ice will not be affected by this skill even though they are only partially covered in them. The amount of viruses affected by this skill differ based on level, where it is two at level 1 and ten at level 5 (the latter with the added effect of filling the skill meter faster). In stage mode, using this skill when there are no more ice left will eliminate a random virus or object (if there are no viruses left), although capsules cannot be removed by this skill.

Other appearances and references[edit]

Super Princess Peach[edit]

Unused Super Princess Peach sprite sheet

Ludwig was originally going to appear in Super Princess Peach, although he was taken out of the final game with the rest of the Koopalings. It appears that he could breathe fire like in Super Mario World, and that he could cackle haughtily.

NES Remix 2[edit]

Since Super Mario Bros. 3 appears in NES Remix 2, Ludwig appears as a boss in some stages along with the rest of the Koopalings.


In the Super Mario Mash-up in Minecraft, Ludwig appears as a playable skin along with the rest of the Koopalings.

Monopoly Gamer[edit]

Ludwig is included (along with the other Koopalings) as a Boss in the Boss Deck of Monopoly Gamer. He is the seventh Boss in the deck.

Mario Tennis Aces[edit]

While Ludwig and the other Koopalings do not appear in Mario Tennis Aces, their airships can be seen in the background of the Savage Sea court.

Mario Golf: Super Rush[edit]

While Ludwig does not appear physically in Mario Golf: Super Rush, he and the other Koopalings make a cameo as names competing in the Bonny Greens Open tournament.

The Super Mario Bros. Movie[edit]

Though Ludwig is absent from The Super Mario Bros. Movie, his full name can be seen on the piano that Bowser plays while singing "Peaches".

General information[edit]

Physical appearance[edit]

Artwork of Ludwig von Koopa from a Nintendo coloring book. The coloring book was included in the July 2015 edition of Japan's TV Video Game Magazine to commemorate the 30th anniversary of Super Mario Bros.
The current appearance of Ludwig in the Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros.

Like the other Koopalings, Ludwig has yellow and tan skin and a green head. He also has a four-ribbed, plated belly and padded feet, wears the same metal, spiked cuffs as the other male Koopalings and he is average in height, being taller than Lemmy, Larry and Wendy but shorter than Roy, Iggy and Morton. With earlier official material showing him as shorter than Mario[14], Mario Kart 8 shows that he is still shorter than most of the other middleweight characters, but, much like the other Koopalings, varies in height between games. Ludwig's shortest modern appearance is in the Mario & Sonic series, and his tallest is in Paper Mario: Color Splash. His facial features are defined, having shaped cheeks, a high nose, a low jaw, and deeply curved lips with a complete set of teeth as revealed by Super Mario Adventure Game Picture Book 2: Mario and Baby Yoshi (「スーパーマリオぼうけんゲームえほん 2 マリオとチビヨッシー」)[15], Super Mario World, when leaping during his boss fight, Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam[16], and in the Super Mario Bros rendition of Super Mario Maker 2. He has a round head and small, circular gray eyes, like Morton. Paper Mario: Color Splash also reveals that his eyes present the tapetum lucidum, as eyeshine can be seen when he is partially in the dark while entering the room on his Super Ludship. The traits that differentiate Ludwig from all the other Koopalings are his single overbite on the upper center of his snout and large, wild, dark blue hair, with a hairstyle similar to that subsequently used for Flurrie. He also has small, blue eyebrows, typically kept at an angle to confer him a serious tone. His sole fang is right in the middle (generally a characteristic of rodents and lagomorphs).

Ludwig's sprites in Super Mario Bros. 3 and Super Mario World show him with white hair due to technical limitations. Similarly, the NES version of the former depicts him with slightly darker skin than the other Koopalings, though nowhere near as dark as Roy and Morton. Similarly, his shell in Hotel Mario is gray-colored. His redesign in New Super Mario Bros. Wii brought minor changes to his appearance. The eyebrows became blue instead of black and Ludwig's shell became blue with light orange rings surrounding the multiple, short spikes instead of green without rings around the spikes. In the Super Smash Bros. series, Ludwig's appearance is mostly unaltered compared to the other Super Mario characters, including Bowser. In Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, however, Ludwig receives a slightly darker and subdued color scheme, while his hair, spikes, and shell receive simple detailing, though his scales remain undefined. These traits are shared with Bowser Jr. and the other Koopalings.

Personality and traits[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa angry at Mario ignoring him in Super Mario Wisdom Games Picture Book 3: Luigi's Secret (「スーパーマリオちえあそびえほん 3 ルイージの ひみつ」).
Ludwig angry at Mario ignoring him

Ludwig is known to be the eldest[1] of the Koopalings; he is said to be precocious and conceited.[17] In Mario and Luigi: Superstar Saga, he gets enraged when ignored by Mario and Luigi, a trait also seen in Super Mario Wisdom Games Picture Book 3: Luigi's Secret (「スーパーマリオちえあそびえほん 3 ルイージの ひみつ」). The same book also displays him as being somewhat of a show-off, both when he introduces himself[18] and when he chases Mario.[19] This latter trait can be also noted when he introduces himself in Super Mario Adventure Game Picture Book 2: Mario and Baby Yoshi,[20] as well as when he performs an impressive display of flips and twirls when riding in bikes or karts in Mario Kart 8, and has been eventually confirmed in his trophy description in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS. In the New Super Mario Bros. series, Ludwig laughs off the threat posed by the Mario Bros. when they face him in his castle, suggesting he underestimates Mario, a trait he himself starts to acknowledge after being defeated in Paper Mario: Color Splash. In Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, after Wendy and Roy's defeat on top of Neo Bowser Castle, Ludwig stated that he was not impressed by their battle. His next words suggest that he thinks of himself as the Koopalings' leader, although the other Koopalings deny this.[21] He also stated himself to have been "dethroned" after losing to Mario, Luigi, and Paper Mario. In the English localization of Paper Mario: Color Splash, he is the only Koopaling to be referred to by his minions as "Your Evilness," a title similar to the ones given to Bowser; in the Japanese version, however, such a title is absent. Regardless of his title, in both versions, Ludwig is the only Koopaling explicitly stating to have worked just to fight Mario at least once rather than to fulfill Bowser's plans and shows a more humble and respectful attitude when suffering defeat, contradicting previous arrogant depictions as well as the fact that Ludwig has fought Mario many times before already. This tendency to act on his own and his secretly humble and respectful attitude slightly matches his Japanese and US blurbs in Mario Kart 8 that call him a "Showoff Villain-Hero" and "Showy Anti-Hero" respectively,[22] and is further confirmed in Bowser Jr.'s Journey where all alone he defeats Beef, one of the Best Fitness Friends, and disguises as him, setting up a trap that nobody else is aware about, not even Kamek or Bowser Jr., only to then say to Bowser Jr., after having revealed his deeds, that he accepts any punishment for what he has done.

On the other hand, he has also been portrayed as the most cynical of his siblings, as he expresses disbelief that Princess Peach would ever agree to marry his father in the Super Mario Adventures comic. In the DOS version of Mario is Missing!, he cracks a joke about light bulbs and darkness at Mario's expense after Bowser discovered the hero's fear of the dark. He also had a horror-themed hotel in Hotel Mario.

Another aspect of Ludwig, not found both in Japanese in-game text and Japanese bios, is his love of classical music and his interests in composing. He waves a conductor's baton in Mario is Missing! and his UK blurb in Mario Kart 8 calls him the "Conductor of Chaos". His bio from the Mario Kart 8 Prima Guide says that he plans to compose his own victory theme should he win the race, and both the Nintendo Comics System and the English version of Super Mario World reveal that he enjoys composing "Koopa Symphonies", although the former goes on to state that they sound horrendous. The book Pipe Down! implied that he was at least partially deaf for a time, as he claims he can finally hear after an explosion "shook something loose in [his] brain". In the 3DS version of Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, his victory animation when he ends up in 2nd or 3rd place has him performing a stationary march, revealing his sense of rhythm.[23] The first game that has lines of dialogue from him specifically related to classical music is the English localization of Paper Mario: Color Splash, where he says that "the first movement begins," as the battle begins, and calls the cannons of his warship "Cannon in Sea Major," with the Italian localization stating in a more direct way that he is a composer.[24] In Bowser Jr.'s Journey, after revealing he had defeated Beef and locked him in the Bob-omb storage room, he tells Kaley that it's "time for [her] to face the music" and that "[his] piano is all tuned up", after which Kaley notes that he has switched to musical metaphors and questions what that means. According to graffiti of his hair and the list of the points of interests in Super Bell Subway, Ludwig might also be into art, as there's a place called "Ludwig Painting," also mentioned in the graffiti.[25][26]

In Ludwig's trophy description in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U, he is considered the most intelligent of the Koopalings, in Paper Mario: Color Splash he even designs his own warship to fight Mario, that he does not manage to fully produce before the latter arrives. He has been given the role of an inventor also in other media, such as the Club Nintendo comic Super Mario: Erholung? Nein, danke!, where he works as the mechanic for the KoopAir airline service. In The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 and the Super Mario World cartoon, Ludwig's name was changed into Kooky, and was portrayed as a stereotypical mad scientist, whose main purpose was to invent new doomsday weapons and gadgets for his father. He would commonly burst out into maniacal laughter or raise his voice by shouting in the middle of talking and seemed to be very aggressive towards the Mario Bros. Kooky did not also care much about his hygiene, never washing or combing his hair. By contrast, the comics give him a more refined personality and vocabulary. In Bowser Jr.'s Journey, Ludwig is shown to be somewhat serious and astute regarding sensing off elements, as evidenced by his sound suspicions that someone was watching and stalking them, something very bad has happened to Bowser's Castle, and his promptly leaving the party to investigate. His intelligence and knack for strategy was further showcased when he defeated Beef: knowing full well he did not stand a chance against him in a fair fight, he instead outsmarted Beef by leaving behind a mannequin in Ludwig's likeness and tricked him into shoving it into lava while promptly disposing of Beef from behind via shoving him into the same lava pit, and then creating Beef's costume to replace him.

Ludwig was given a stereotypical German accent in both the official Nintendo Power strategy guide for Super Mario Bros. 3 and the CD-ROM Deluxe edition of Mario is Missing!, along with maniacal laughter not indicated in the speech bubbles in the latter source. In the Italian version of Paper Mario: Color Splash he even leaves Mario speaking in German.[27] Interestingly, he seems to have a very laid-back tone in the original Japanese Super Mario Bros. 3 manual, having some eccentric "cool musician" mannerisms and even using the first-person pronoun 「おいら」 oira (highlighted in katakana as 「オイラ」), a version of 「おれ」 ore with rural connotations. In the Super Mario Picture Books, he uses the arrogant term 「おれさま」 ore-sama to refer to himself;[18][20][28] said term, along with the strong but less arrogant 「オレ」 ore, is also used in the Super Mario-Kun manga. He usually uses as his second-person pronoun 「オマエ」 omae, however, in Paper Mario: Color Splash, he instead uses 「キミ」 kimi.

Powers and abilities[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa spitting fireballs in Super Mario Wisdom Games Picture Book 3: Luigi's secret (「スーパーマリオちえあそびえほん 3 ルイージの ひみつ」).
Ludwig spitting fireballs
“I combine all the attacks ov[sic] my younger brothers and sister - I am the ultimate Koopaling!”
Ludwig, Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, page 72.

Ludwig is usually portrayed as the most talented and powerful of the Koopalings. In Super Mario Bros. 3, Ludwig shared his attack pattern with Roy; Ludwig could fire projectiles from his magic wand, pound the ground to stun the Mario Bros., and retreat in his shell for both defensive and offensive purposes. Although all the Koopalings in Super Mario Bros 3 frequently retreated into their shells when stomped on by the Mario Bros. Ludwig was the only one of the Koopalings to demonstrate doing so at will, without having to be hit by the Mario Bros. He was given a completely unique attack pattern in Super Mario World, which none of the other Koopalings shared; Ludwig could spit three fireballs in a row and spin around the room in his shell, after which he could perform a long jump to the other side of the room. Ludwig was given even more new powers in Hotel Mario: he can fire electricity from his hands and teleport in a flash of lightning. In Superstar Saga, Ludwig retained his previous abilities of breathing fire (though not as furiously as the previous time) and spinning around in his shell, but also learned the new ability of spinning like a tornado to attack the Mario Bros., which was also done by Iggy.

In New Super Mario Bros. Wii, Ludwig learned even more new abilities. He can either blast four fireballs from his wand at time or fire a single fireball, each homing in on the player, and has even mastered the ability of Flutter Jumping, being able to stay in the air for several seconds. His appearance in New Super Mario Bros. 2 has him also expanding on these abilities, utilizing the Flutter Jump to grab a chain, and then move between the two, and in addition, he can also increase his rate of fire. In New Super Mario Bros. U, similar to Lemmy and Wendy in Mario and Luigi: Superstar Saga, he was also revealed to create fake duplicates to fake out the Mario Bros. He is also shown with the ability to levitate without needing to Flutter Jump. He has also proven to be more acrobatic than most of the other Koopalings being able to jump large horizontal distance with several flips in Super Mario World. While his appearance in Mario Kart 8 and Mario Kart 8 Deluxe does not show his abilities, it is shown he can do a double-flip in the air while performing a stunt. Most of his tricks involve him jumping out of his kart, something he does more than any other characters. His agility is further confirmed in the 3DS version of Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games when he ends up in 2nd place or 3rd place, as in his victory animation he is able to stand on his right hand and spin, spanning two complete circles with his spinning[23].

Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U has Ludwig in his own version of the Koopa Clown Car, as he is a "palette swap" of Bowser Jr., just like the other Koopalings. He can shoot cannonballs, use drills, boxing gloves, wrecking balls, and can even jump out of his Clown Car. Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam shows that he has some decks of Battle Cards that are used in the battle against the Mario Bros. and Paper Mario thanks to Dark Star Points that he and Larry collect by dealing damage to their opponents, showing how ingenious Ludwig is. Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games shows that Ludwig is very skilled in Table Tennis, which has been known to be a patient and strategic game, perfectly suited to him. In Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020, Ludwig is shown to be a skilled fencer, implying skills in swordplay. In Super Mario Maker 2, he retains his Flutter Jump and magic spread-shots from the New Super Mario Bros. series, but can now cast his spread shots near-instantaneously like his single magic shot spells in his tower battle in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, no longer requiring a short charge time.

Profiles and statistics[edit]

Main article: List of Ludwig von Koopa profiles and statistics

Mario Kart 8 / Mario Kart 8 Deluxe[edit]

Ludwig von Koopa emblem from Mario Kart 8Ludwig's horn emblem from Mario Kart 8
Ludwig's emblems, from Mario Kart 8.
  • Class: Medium
  • Size: Medium
  • Stat Boosts
    • Ground speed: 6
    • Water speed: 6
    • Air speed: 6
    • Anti-gravity speed: 6
    • Acceleration: 2
    • Weight: 6
    • Ground handling: 4
    • Water handling: 4
    • Air handling: 4
    • Anti-gravity handling: 4
    • Traction: 2
    • Mini-turbo: 2
  • Bio: "Ludwig has followed his fellow Koopalings to the races, intending to compose his own victory anthem should he win... which as far as he’s concerned is the obvious outcome."
Staff Ghost time
Course Staff Name Country Time Vehicle Combination
Body Tires Glider
3DS Piranha Plant Slide Nin★Polly United Kingdom 2:23.991 Jet Bike Slim Super Glider

List of appearances[edit]

Title Description Original Release Date System/Format
Super Mario Bros. 3 Boss Japan:
October 23, 1988
Super Mario World Boss Japan:
November 21, 1990
Mario is Missing! Boss North America:
Yoshi's Safari Boss Japan:
July 14, 1993
Super Mario All-Stars Boss Japan:
July 14, 1993
Super Mario All-Stars + Super Mario World Boss North America:
December, 1994
Hotel Mario Boss North America:
December 31, 1994
Super Smash Bros. Melee Mentioned Japan:
November 21, 2001
Nintendo GameCube
Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2 Boss Japan:
December 14, 2001
Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3 Boss Japan:
July 21, 2003
Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga Boss North America:
November 17, 2003
Super Smash Bros. Brawl Sticker Japan:
January 31, 2008
New Super Mario Bros. Wii Boss Australia:
November 12, 2009
Super Mario All-Stars Limited Edition Boss Japan:
October 21, 2010
New Super Mario Bros. 2 Boss Japan:
July 28, 2012
Nintendo 3DS
New Super Mario Bros. U Boss North America:
November 18, 2012
Wii U
New Super Luigi U Boss Japan:
June 19, 2013
Wii U
Mario Kart Arcade GP DX Cameos on banners Japan:
July 25, 2013
Mario Kart 8 Unlockable Playable Character Japan:
May 29, 2014
Wii U
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS Unlockable Playable Character (Palette Swap) Japan:
September 13, 2014
Nintendo 3DS
Super Smash Bros. for Wii U Playable Character (Palette Swap) North America:
November 21, 2014
Wii U
Nintendo Badge Arcade Cameo as Badge Japan:
December 17, 2014
Nintendo 3DS
Puzzle & Dragons: Super Mario Bros. Edition Boss (playable afterwards) Japan:
April 29, 2015
Nintendo 3DS
Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam Boss Japan:
December 3, 2015
Nintendo 3DS
Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Playable Character Japan:
February 18, 2016
Nintendo 3DS
Minecraft: Wii U Edition Playable skin in the Super Mario Mash-up North America:
May 17, 2016
Wii U
Paper Mario: Color Splash Boss North America:
October 7, 2016
Wii U
Mario Kart 8 Deluxe Playable Character Japan:
April 28, 2017
Nintendo Switch
Minecraft: Nintendo Switch Edition Playable skin in the Super Mario Mash-up North America:
May 11, 2017
Nintendo Switch
Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions Ally and Boss Japan:
October 5, 2017
Nintendo 3DS
Minecraft: New Nintendo 3DS Edition Playable skin in the Super Mario Mash-up North America:
June 5, 2018
New Nintendo 3DS
Minecraft (Bedrock version) Playable skin in the Super Mario Mash-up North America:
June 21, 2018
Nintendo Switch
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate Unlockable Playable Character (Palette Swap) Japan:
December 7, 2018
Nintendo Switch
Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey Ally Japan:
December 27, 2018
Nintendo 3DS
New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe Boss Japan:
January 11, 2019
Nintendo Switch
Dr. Mario World Unlockable Playable Character Worldwide:
July 9, 2019
iOS, Android
Mario Kart Tour Unlockable Playable Character Worldwide:
October 9, 2019
iOS, Android
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 Unlockable Playable Character Japan:
November 1, 2019
Nintendo Switch
Super Mario Maker 2 (version 3.0.0) Enemy Worldwide:
April 22, 2020
Nintendo Switch
Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit Non-Playable Character Japan:
October 16, 2020
Nintendo Switch


This is a list of all voice actors of Ludwig von Koopa.


For this subject's image gallery, see Gallery:Ludwig von Koopa.


Main article: List of Ludwig von Koopa quotes

Names in other languages[edit]

Language Name Meaning
Japanese ルドウィッグ
Ludwig, from the English name

Chinese (simplified) 路德维格[29]
洛德威格 (since Super Smash Bros. Ultimate)



Chinese (traditional) 洛德威格

Dutch Ludwig
French Ludwig
German Ludwig
Italian Ludwig
Korean 루드윅
Ludwig, from the English/Japanese name

Portuguese Ludwig
Romanian Kooky (The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3)
Russian Людвиг
Куки (The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3)

From international name

Spanish (NOA) Ludwig von Koopa
Chiflis von Koopa (DIC cartoons)
Chiflis comes from chiflado (daft).
Spanish (NOE) Ludwig von Koopa
Trampas (The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3)
(lit.) "Cheats" or "Traps"
Swedish Kaxe


  • Ludwig is one of only two Koopalings whose placement in birth order was officially confirmed, the other being Larry.
  • Ludwig allegedly being deaf in the comics is a reference to his namesake, Ludwig van Beethoven, who was known to have been deaf during his later life, resulting in his aides having to physically turn him around during a standing ovation due to his not hearing the applause.
  • According to the Nintendo Power strategy guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, Ludwig is a Baron.[30]
    • In this same guide, Ludwig speaks with a stereotypical German accent, based on his namesake's nationality.[31]
  • Ludwig's Nintendo Super Secrets card describes him as "a mad genius known throughout Rhineland". Rhineland has never been shown or mentioned in any other Super Mario media, but it may be a reference to Rhineland-Palatinate, a state in western Germany.
  • Ludwig, unlike his siblings, has never been the first Koopaling to be fought, excluding Mario is Missing! for the SNES due to Iggy and Roy only appearing alongside him in the game.


  1. ^ a b c "Bowser's oldest Koopaling and second in command, he's a real monster!" - Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, page 9.
  2. ^ As explained on the Koopalings' profile on the New Super Mario Bros. U official site, as well as Larry's Super Smash Bros. for Wii U trophy.
  3. ^ a b Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, pages 9 & 72.
  4. ^ Smash Bros. Wii U: All Character Aliases on Punch-Out Stage
  5. ^ Super Smash Bros. Wii U - All PAL Boxing Ring Aliases
  6. ^ "New Drivers!" in the Japanese Nintendo Direct, April 30, 2014. YouTube. (Retrieved May 2, 2014)
  7. ^ "New Challengers" in the European Nintendo Direct, April 30, 2014. YouTube. (Retrieved May 2, 2014)
  8. ^ "New Challengers" in the North American Nintendo Direct, April 30, 2014. YouTube. (Retrieved May 2, 2014)
  9. ^ Nintendo (September 3, 2020). Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit - Announcement Trailer - Nintendo Switch. YouTube. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  10. ^ Nintendo of Japan (November 12, 2015). マリオ&ソニック AT リオオリンピック™ トレーラー. YouTube. retrieved November 13, 2015.
  11. ^ As indicated by the BB_BossBattle_Ludwig_10 line of dialogue, that states Not even you could withstand my power, Mario... Now, meet your doom. Lud-Cannon Blast!
  12. ^ Said sentence is the BB_BossBattle_Ludwig_09 line of dialogue that states Gweheh! You're going to fight my Super Ludship with THOSE cards? You'd best turn tail and run!
  13. ^ As shown by the LDW_BULLET_KILL_ATTACK in the Weapon Data Table of the game.
  14. ^ 1993 Nintendo Character Guide Comparison Chart. Press The Buttons. Retrieved October 14,2015.
  15. ^ A red, yellow and blue Baby Yoshi growing into adults, squishing Ludwig, in Super Mario Adventure Game Picture Book 2: Mario and Baby Yoshi (「スーパーマリオぼうけんゲームえほん 2 マリオとチビヨッシー」)Media:SMAGPB2 Yoshi Squishing Ludwig.png Ludwig has a full set of teeth along with the overbite.
  16. ^ NintenU (December 8, 2015). Mario & Luigi Paper Jam Walkthrough Part 35 Ludwig & Larry Boss Battle. YouTube. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  17. ^ - New Super Mario Bros. Wii character pages (Click on the blue circle with the arrow to reach the Koopaling page and click on the pictures to see the short bio of each of the Koopalings.) 「大人びて」 otona bite roughly means "adult-like", while 「ナマイキな」 namaikina means "conceited". The rest of the biographical info amounts to a tentative suggestion that he is "the brains of the group" (which was later confirmed a description for Super Smash Bros. for Wii U/3DS). (Retrieved November 17, 2011)
  18. ^ a b Ludwig challenging Mario in Super Mario Wisdom Games Picture Book 3: Luigi's SecretMedia:SMWGPB3 Ludwig OreSama.png.
  19. ^ Ludwig chasing Mario in Super Mario Wisdom Games Picture Book 3: Luigi's SecretMedia:SMWGPB3 Ludwig Proud.png.
  20. ^ a b Ludwig von Koopa challenging Mario and Yoshi in Super Mario Adventure Game Picture Book 2: Mario and Baby YoshiMedia:SMAGPB2 Ludwig OreSama.png.
  21. ^ BeardBear (December 3, 2015). Mario & Luigi Paper Jam Walkthrough Part 27 | Neo Bowser Castle #5 & Bosses Koopalings. YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  22. ^ Nintendo (Aprile 30th, 2014).Wii U - Mario Kart 8 Direct 4.30.2014. YouTube. Retrieved November 29, 2021
  23. ^ a b Zephiel810 (February 25, 2016). Mario and Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games (3DS) - All Character 2nd/3rd Place Animations. YouTube. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  24. ^ stratussina (October 31, 2016). Mario paper color splash ITA #23 Base Cobalto Boss Ludwig Megavernistella Blu. YouTube. Retrieved November 24, 2016. Ludwig says, "Che lo scontro abbia inizio! Mettetevi comodi per ammirare il concerto con assolo di cannone che ho composto io stesso!", which means, "May the fight begin! Take a comfortable seat to admire the concert with cannon solo that I myself composed!"
  25. ^ The map of the city where the Super Bell Subway course is found. Ludwig Painting is among the "A" list of points of interest.
  26. ^ The graffiti found in Super Bell Subway.
  27. ^ stratussina (October 31, 2016). Mario paper color splash ITA #23 Base Cobalto Boss Ludwig Megavernistella Blu. YouTube. Retrieved November 24, 2016. Ludwig says Auf Wiedersehen! which means goodbye!.
  28. ^ Ludwig showing his first challenge in Super Mario Adventure Game Picture Book 2: Mario and Baby YoshiMedia:SMAGPB2 Ludwig OreSama Challenge.png.
  29. ^ iQue's localization of Super Mario Advance 2
  30. ^ "Baron Ludwig Von Koopa-The Second Meanest Koopa Around!"Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, page 72.
  31. ^ "Vee shall see if you can defeat me, Mario. I combine all the attacks of my younger brothers and sister - I am the ultimate Koopaling! I see you trembling , Mario. Vy don't you just go home?" - Nintendo Power Volume 13, page 72.