- Not to be confused with Koopa Kid.
Full group artwork of the Koopalings for New Super Mario Bros. Wii.
|First appearance||Super Mario Bros. 3 (1988)|
|Latest appearance||Mario Kart Live: Home Circuit (2020)|
- “We just love being mean!!”
- —Koopalings, Super Mario Bros. 3 instruction booklet
The Koopalings, also known as Bowser's Minions in Japanese and the British English localizations of some games, and in certain American works as the Koopa Kids, are a seven-member clan of recurring enemies in the Super Mario franchise, portrayed as siblings who act as leaders of the Koopa Troop under Bowser. Individually, they are named Larry, Morton, Wendy, Iggy, Roy, Lemmy, and Ludwig. Although Bowser Jr. is not a member of the Koopalings, they sometimes act as his personal minions.
The Koopalings debuted in Super Mario Bros. 3, and later appeared as bosses in various SNES-era Super Mario games before going on a long hiatus, reappearing once in 2003's Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga, and then being redesigned for 2009's New Super Mario Bros. Wii, which has since been followed by numerous appearances as both bosses in the Super Mario platformers and playable characters in various spinoffs. They have also appeared in various other media, including the cartoon The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3, which featured entirely different names for the characters due to them not having official names at the time of its production phase.
Originally, the Koopalings were depicted as Bowser's children and stated to be his offspring. Older games continue to maintain them as his children in re-releases and updated manuals. However, Shigeru Miyamoto eventually affirmed that Nintendo's "current story is that the Koopalings are not Bowser's children" in 2012, leaving the Koopalings as his underlings and Bowser Jr. as his only child.
The Koopalings are listed below in their original order:
|Larry Koopa||Larry Koopa is the youngest Koopaling who is often seen at the forefront of the Koopalings' antics, and he wields the orange magic wand. His main color representation is sky blue, although his shell was originally colored green, his hair was white in early sprites, and he lacked the small star on the side of his face. There is some confusion over the identity of Larry's namesake; the most recent official statement from his christener, Nintendo of America employee Dayvv Brooks, is that Larry was named as such because he simply "looked like a Larry," though Brooks had previously stated that Larry's name was derived from Larry Mullen Jr., the drummer for the Irish rock band U2. He was also known as "Cheatsy" in the cartoons, alluding to the fact that he will try to win by any means, legitimate or otherwise. He seems to have an interest in sports, such as how he plays tennis with a fireball in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga. In the Nintendo Comics System, he communicated via pictures in word bubbles, which only Lemmy understood.|
|Morton Koopa Jr.||Morton Koopa Jr. is the only Koopaling to have a brown skin tone and is often depicted as the largest Koopaling, wielding the red magic wand. His main color representation is black, although his shell was colored green, his skin was yellow in Super Mario World, and he lacked the distinctive star on his face in his early in-game sprites. He is named after the American tabloid talk show presenter Morton Downey, Jr. He was also known as "Big Mouth" in the cartoons, due to his talkative nature, and often talks for long amounts of time, only to be stopped by another character, most often one of his siblings. In other appearances, he seems to be rather grouchy, with brutal strength to match. Morton's level of intelligence is portrayed inconsistently; sometimes he is shown to be quite slow-witted, but in other games, he possesses a more cunning side.|
|Wendy O. Koopa||Wendy O. Koopa is the sole female Koopaling; she wields the purple magic wand. Her main color representation is pink, although her shell was a shade of deep red in Super Mario World. She is named after Wendy O. Williams, an American singer and frontwoman of the punk rock band the Plasmatics. She was also known as "Kootie Pie" in the cartoons and was considered a spoiled brat with a quick temper, often going into a rage over little things. She is stated to be tomboyish, and seemed to act as the de facto boss in Super Mario Adventures.|
|Iggy Koopa||Iggy Koopa is a hyperactive, demented, and unpredictable Koopaling who wields the yellow magic wand. His main choice of color is yellow-green, although his shell was colored blue in early sprites and his hair was white in Super Mario World; before New Super Mario Bros. Wii, his hair was also similar to Lemmy's. He is named after Iggy Pop, an American rock musician and frontman of the proto-punk band the Stooges. He was also known as "Hop" in the cartoons and is the twin brother of Hip (Lemmy); together, they are among the youngest members of the family. He was just as childish and immature as his brother in the cartoon series, whereas in the Nintendo Adventure Books he was depicted as a brilliant (if crazed) inventor; this has possibly been hinted at in New Super Mario Bros. U, where the inside of his ship is mechanical rather than wooden.|
|Roy Koopa||Roy Koopa's head and sunglasses are pink (as was his shell originally), and he wields the black magic wand. His main color representation is purple, although his shell and head were colored lavender-purple in Super Mario World. He is named after American rock & roll singer Roy Orbison. He was also known as "Bully" in the cartoons and is said to be a typical bully who likes beating up others for his own amusement. This is true in most appearances, but in certain Japanese materials, Roy instead speaks in a calm and collected manner, so he may have more of a laid-back personality and be less of a tough guy. He is also the second bulkiest Koopaling after Morton.|
|Lemmy Koopa||Lemmy Koopa is depicted as a small, fun-loving child who wields the green magic wand and has been shown capable of being serious when the situation calls for it. His main color representation is orange. Although in Super Mario World, his shell was colored yellow and his hair was white, and his shell was originally green and he lacked the ponytail. He is named after the late Lemmy Kilmister, frontman of the English heavy metal band Motörhead. He was also known as "Hip" in the cartoons and is the twin brother of Hop (Iggy); together, they are among the youngest members of the family. Lemmy is usually depicted as perhaps the least bright Koopaling, but is also the most genuinely innocent of his siblings.|
|Ludwig von Koopa||Ludwig von Koopa is the eldest who possesses a magnificent intelligence most likely superior to that of the other Koopalings, and wields the blue magic wand. His main color representation is deep blue, although he was originally depicted with a green shell in artwork (aqua-blue in Super Mario Bros. 3 and yellow in Super Mario World), as well as white hair in early sprites. He is named after the German Classical and Romantic late composer Ludwig van Beethoven. He was also known as "Kooky" in the cartoons and had more of a mad scientist persona. Like his namesake, he is said to be a composer and is very much into the culture, but is also sometimes suggested to be the cruelest of the Koopalings. According to Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, Ludwig egotistically believes himself to be a "real leader", to which the others, Lemmy, Morton, and Iggy specifically, claim they never voted on it and further explain they operate as a collective trust.|
Concept and creation
One of the first sketches in which the Koopalings can be seen, a result of the collaboration between Yoichi Kotabe and Takashi Tezuka, happened before the release of the Family Computer Disk System version of Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels in 1986 and is associated with Bowser's first redesign. The Koopalings were modeled after the design team of Super Mario Bros. 3, and they were all named after famous musicians by the game's North American localizers, since they were not given distinct names in the original Japanese version. In the Japanese version of Super Mario World, only their first names were adopted, dropping the Koopa surname, as was done in many subsequent games (both in English and Japanese). The Koopalings were all given different names in the cartoons, purportedly because Nintendo of America had not released their own names yet, forcing the writers of The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 to come up with their own names.
The word "Koopaling" itself is likely a combination of the name "Koopa" with the diminutive suffix "-ling", which is often used to denote a younger, smaller or inferior version, which aptly describes their relation to Bowser. Similarly, their original Japanese name, "Kokuppa" is essentially "Little Koopa" (which is what the retainers serving the kings call them) or "Child Koopa", with Koopa being the Japanese name of Bowser. Interestingly, only their Italian name, Bowserotti, actually means Little Bowsers using the Western name of Bowser, with the names in the other languages leaving the Koopa word intact, even when it does not specifically mean Bowser. The English name also evokes such words as "fledgling", "hatchling", "youngling", or even "underling", and may be a mere portmanteau between one of them and "Koopa".
- Main article: History of Koopalings
Koopalings are Bowser's minions who debuted in Super Mario Bros. 3, notable for appearing as bosses in different worlds in Mario platformers. In some role-playing games (like Mario & Luigi series), they appear as bosses. They made some appearances in spin-offs as separate playable characters. They appear in other Super Mario media under different names while they did not have their official names during their production names.
All the Koopalings look relatively similar to Bowser and Bowser Jr., but lack horns on their head. Morton has a unique darker complexion, and three have heads that are not green in coloration (Morton's head is white and Roy's is pink while Wendy's head matches the rest of her body's yellow coloration). Three of them (Larry, Wendy and in part Iggy) have blue eyes much like Bowser in Super Mario Bros. 3 (but while Bowser's eyes were changed to red, the Koopalings' eyes remained blue). Originally, Ludwig, Morton and Lemmy's eyes were merely black dots, however the former two have since been shown to have thin dark gray irises. All of them have pointed claws on their hands. All the Koopalings have various distinguishing features, such as varying numbers of teeth protruding from their snouts and unique hair styles and colors. Oddly, their sprites in Super Mario World and the Super Mario Bros. 3 remake in Super Mario All-Stars gave them all white hair and coloration that did not match their artwork, carrying over from the original, inaccurate color palette from the NES. All of them, like Bowser, have ribbed plated bellies. Although the Koopalings were shown in the sprites to have at least four spikes on their shells, the cover for Nintendo Power Player's Guide for Super Mario All-Stars showed them, or at least Morton and Roy, only having three spines, all of which were directly on the center of the shell from top to bottom. In addition, while Lemmy does not have fangs, his in-game depiction in Super Mario World does.
While most of the Koopalings originally had green shells, redesigns introduced with New Super Mario Bros. Wii gave them all unique shell colors. Other aspects of their pre-existing designs were also tweaked, such as Iggy's hair being green rather than multicolored in order to differentiate him further from Lemmy, and their heights and builds being more varied, with Morton now the tallest, followed by Iggy, Roy, Ludwig, Wendy, Larry and finally Lemmy, who was the runt of the litter in their original appearances as well. Their tails also became visible in their official artwork starting from New Super Mario Bros. Wii, having not been drawn until then except for some sprite depictions and an artwork which apparently shows Iggy's tail. In their appearances in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U and Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, because they are model swaps of Bowser Jr., all of the Koopalings appear roughly the same height as one another, most notably with Roy, Iggy, Morton and Lemmy (although Iggy is still thin).
The Koopalings' designs were modified in the DIC cartoons, although they were still recognizable.
The Koopalings' individual personalities have not been fleshed out much besides being childlike, their desire to cause mayhem, and their loyalty to Bowser. However, there were some hints in various supplementary materials. Some of the personalities changed between localizations. For example, Roy in the North American localizations was depicted in a manner similar to a bully (which also earned him the name "Bully" in the DIC cartoons), but the Japanese Super Mario Bros. 3 instruction booklet and Super Mario Advance 4 e-Reader cards give him a calm and collected demeanor. The original manual also gave each of the Koopalings several quirks unique to each of them that hinted at their individual personalities with some speeches uttered by them; however, the official English translation toned down several of these quirks or removed them altogether. Although loyal to Bowser, they also did not wish to be on the receiving end of Bowser's rage if they failed a task, as evidenced by Larry's reason for why he and the other Koopalings will not give up the kings' wands easily to Mario, as he stated that the alternative would be to get yelled at by Bowser. Prior to their modern depictions, they were given distinguishing characteristics in The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 and the Super Mario World cartoon, as well as the Nintendo Comics System and Nintendo Adventure Books. In Mario Kart 8, the Koopalings seem to have better speech capabilities than Bowser, as they can be heard saying their names at several points, and even yelling one or two-liners. In addition to being childlike, a Play Nintendo quiz describes the Koopalings as "zany".
The Koopalings' loyalty to Bowser is strong enough that they are willing to serve him even when "Bowser" is actually not himself and in fact possessed by another figure. This is implied by their servitude to Bowletta in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga and later confirmed in Paper Mario: Color Splash, where Wendy and Larry specifically mention doing their actions for Bowser and Morton indirectly says that as well despite Bowser being under the influence of black paint. In the remake, they also possessed strong enough wills that Fawful, when brainwashing them with his spray, was ultimately forced to use a maximum potent dosage on them to sway them to his side.
They were also willing to work with Bowser's son, Bowser Jr., and had little problem with him, as implied by Roy Koopa briefly calling him squirt (Young Master in the Japanese version) and overall talking to him in a casual nature. However, Bowser Jr.'s Journey indicated that even they have their limits when working with Bowser Jr., as many of them ended up quitting on him due to being fed up with his notoriously selfish nature while they were trying to hunt for the remedy for the blorbs, the only real exceptions being Iggy and Morton, the former being forced to leave by Bowser Jr. due to finding him annoying, and the latter ended up brainwashed by the Best Fitness Friends into attacking Bowser Jr..
The Koopalings each have varying abilities, but in general, the Koopalings are capable of using their shell as both a method of defense and a method of offense. In addition, they are all capable of jumping very high, and are all skilled in magic, frequently using magic wands as a weapon. While only Ludwig, Iggy, and Larry spat fireballs in Super Mario World, Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga revealed that all Koopalings have this ability. Despite that, they are weak to fireballs, though their exact limit has varied between taking multiple fireballs to take down, or being one-hit knocked out by a single fireball. Similar to Bowser, they also have a tendency to survive dangerous hits. This is especially evident with their defeat in Super Mario World, where Larry, Wendy, Iggy, and Lemmy were dunked into lava by the Mario Bros., and each Koopaling later had their castles collapse on them, in New Super Mario Bros. Wii where they, alongside Bowser and Bowser Jr., ended up surviving being crushed by Bowser's falling castle, and in New Super Mario Bros. 2, where all of them were accidentally knocked into the lava twice (once by a gigantic Bowser, and then by a gigantic Dry Bowser). Their fighting prowess was such that they managed to casually knock away several Beanies while discussing how they can find Bowser at the same time in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions.
In terms of talents unique to individual Koopalings, they seem to know their own spells. While most of them simply cast a colorful shot of magic that slowly flies in a straight line, Wendy instead creates glowing rings that ricochet off the surfaces of the room, and Lemmy creates bouncing circus balls that can knock the Mario Bros. into a bottomless pit. In every game appearance outside of Super Mario World, Lemmy is always seen in battle balancing on top of a big yellow circus ball covered with starry patterns. Ludwig could create earthquakes with his descents in Super Mario Bros. 3, an ability that was taken away from him ever since New Super Mario Bros. Wii, but kept by Roy and Morton. Ludwig was given the ability to flutter jump in the New Super Mario Bros. games instead. In Super Mario World, Roy and Morton were able to walk up walls and ceilings and drop down at will.
In their first appearance in Super Mario Bros. 3, the Koopalings were introduced as siblings and Bowser's own children. Most re-releases and remakes of this 1988 game as well as republications of the game's story retain this detail in Japan, including the 2013 3DS Virtual Console release. However, the 2007 Japanese Wii Virtual Console version's manual does not mention their relationship to Bowser, and the 2015 Japanese Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros. uses a less strong statement than the one found in the original manual. The 2018 English and French versions of Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros. preserve the original manual's description of the Koopalings being Bowser's children verbatim, while the German and Spanish translations of said book make no mention of the Koopalings being siblings or Bowser's children. Translations of Super Mario Bros. 3, its rereleases, remakes, official guides and websites have kept this detail to varying degrees, with most calling the Koopalings Bowser's offspring. The 1990 cartoon based on the game, The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3, follows this portrayal where the Koopalings refer to Bowser as "king dad".
The 1991 Super Mario World English manual, the Japanese Nintendo Official Guidebooks for both the original and 2001 Super Mario Advance 2: Super Mario World remake, and related 1990 Japanese materials state that the Koopalings are Bowsers' children, while the in-game text and Japanese manual (as well as its rereleases and remakes) do not make any direct statements about their relationship. In three character books written with the involvement of Nintendo, the Koopalings are considered Bowser's children, and in two cases explicitly stated to be members of his royal family (「
The manual for the SNES version of Mario is Missing! vaguely describes the Koopalings as Bowser's "bad boys", although in the DOS version's in-game dialogue, the Koopalings refer to Bowser by name rather than with a familial title. In Super Smash Bros. Melee, Bowser's seven children are mentioned in both the Japanese and English versions, and this relationship is also mentioned in the Super Mario Advance series from 2001-2003.
Following the introduction of Bowser Jr. in 2002, who is treated independently from the Koopalings, and the lack of major appearances from the Koopalings between Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga in 2003 and New Super Mario Bros. Wii in 2009, there was confusion about the nature of Bowser's parenthood. Bowser Jr. was first implied to have replaced the Koopalings as Bowser's sole child in the description of Bowser's trophy in Super Smash Bros. Brawl, the Japanese version of which refers to Bowser Jr. as「ひとり息子」, meaning "one son" or "only son". While the Koopalings and Bowser Jr. appear together in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, official websites refer to the Koopalings as Bowser's minions rather than his children, and as each other's comrades rather than siblings; however, the game's Prima guide refers to the Koopalings and Bowser Jr. collectively as Bowser's children, and considers Bowser Jr. to be a Koopaling himself. In a September 2012 interview, Shigeru Miyamoto, speaking with Takashi Tezuka, stated that the "current story is that the seven Koopalings are not Bowser's children", leaving Bowser Jr. as his only child (with an unknown mother). In the Japanese Nintendo Direct announcing the Koopalings as playable characters in Mario Kart 8, they are described as「クッパ
In Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, the Koopalings have lines of dialogue, which would later continue in games such as Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, Paper Mario: Color Splash, Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions, Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey, and Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020. To reflect their revised portrayal, in the Japanese versions of the games, the Koopalings refer to Bowser as Master Bowser (「クッパ
The Japanese website of New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe, besides referring to them using the newer Team of Seven Bowsers (｢クッパ7人衆｣) term instead of the original Bowser's Minions (｢クッパの手下｣) term, also indicates that they are currently considered as the leaders of the Bowser clan (｢クッパ一味の幹部｣).
In Nintendo Power, Larry was stated to be the youngest of the Koopalings (reaffirmed as still true in his trophy description in the American version of Super Smash Bros. for Wii U and his character origin tip in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate), while Ludwig was said to be the oldest. The birth order for the five middle children was not confirmed, although in Super Mario Bros. 3, as Larry is the first Koopaling to be fought and Ludwig is the last, the implication would seem to be that all seven Koopalings are fought in order from youngest to oldest (provided the player does not warp); however, Morton is described as "one of the older Koopalings," although this may have been in relation to Larry, the previous boss encountered. The same guide also stated that Ludwig is Bowser's second in command, although this has since been supplanted by characters such as Kammy Koopa, Kamek, and Bowser Jr., as well as English versions of Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and the European version of Super Smash Bros. for Wii U stating that Larry leads the Koopalings (though this is possibly due to a mistranslation). The Prima strategy guide for Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3 describes Roy as being "a little heavier than his younger family", which might indicate that Roy is one of the older Koopalings. In Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, Larry calls Ludwig "boss", and Ludwig shows that he thinks of himself as a leader, and even a king.
In The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3, Hip and Hop (Lemmy and Iggy) are depicted as twins and are contradictorily believed to be the youngest. Although Kootie Pie (Wendy) celebrated her sixteenth birthday in "Reptiles in the Rose Garden", the specific ages of the others was never confirmed. According to the Writer's Bible included on the Shout! Factory DVD set and brief concept clips of the cartoon, the other Koopalings were all teenagers; Bully (Roy) was the eldest, followed by Big Mouth (Morton), Kooky (Ludwig), Cheatsy (Larry), Kootie Pie, and finally Hip and Hop both at six years old. This is seemingly the reference used for the Nintendo Adventure Books series, since in Leaping Lizards Morton exclaims, "Little brothers are so cowardly!" in regards to Iggy, although this may have been a quip at Luigi's expense (who expressed particular resentment at that remark).
The order the Koopalings are fought differ in each game they appear as bosses:
|Super Mario Bros. 3 / Monopoly Gamer||Larry||Morton||Wendy||Iggy||Roy||Lemmy||Ludwig|
|Super Mario World / Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga||Iggy||Morton||Lemmy||Ludwig||Roy||Wendy||Larry|
|New Super Mario Bros. Wii||Larry||Roy||Lemmy||Wendy||Iggy||Morton||Ludwig|
|New Super Mario Bros. 2||Roy||Iggy||Larry||Wendy||Morton||Lemmy||Ludwig|
|New Super Mario Bros. U / New Super Luigi U||Lemmy||Morton||Larry||Wendy||Iggy||Roy||Ludwig|
|Puzzle & Dragons: Super Mario Bros. Edition||Larry||Lemmy||Morton||Wendy||Iggy||Roy||Ludwig|
|Paper Mario: Color Splash||Morton||Iggy||Ludwig||Wendy||Larry||Lemmy||Roy|
|Minion Quest: The Search for Bowser||Larry||Iggy||Wendy||Morton||Roy||Lemmy||Ludwig|
- Due to the world structure of New Super Mario Bros. 2 (six main worlds and three optional special worlds), Worlds Mushroom and Flower (and their Koopalings, Larry and Lemmy) can be considered either to be preceded by World 6 (Bowser) or succeeded by Worlds 3 (Wendy) and 5 (Ludwig), respectively.
- Even though Sparkling Waters and Frosted Glacier are officially considered to be the third and fourth worlds of New Super Mario Bros. U (and New Super Luigi U), respectively, the player can choose to beat whichever one (and their Koopalings, Larry and Wendy) first. Similarly, while all the levels are numbered in Yoshi's Safari, the player can play them in any order they wish.
- Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam has the player fighting two or three of the Koopalings at once, with Roy and Wendy, then Larry and Ludwig, then Morton and Lemmy via Papercraft; then each pair is fought again, with Morton and Lemmy joined by Iggy. The first two pairs are also fought alongside Dry Bowser.
- In the SNES version of Mario is Missing!, only Ludwig, Iggy, and Roy are fought, with Larry, Morton, Wendy and Lemmy only being depicted in the manual. In the DOS version, however, all except for Morton and Lemmy appear (although the latter two were planned to appear, at least in the CD-ROM Deluxe edition, due to the presence of unused voice clips), and they're fought in the following order: Larry, Roy, Wendy, Iggy and Ludwig.
- In Minion Quest: The Search for Bowser, Lemmy and Ludwig are both fought in the same level, albeit in different waves (Lemmy comes two waves before Ludwig). All the Koopalings are fought again at the same time later in the game, with Ludwig as the captain and the rest as regular troops.
- Although Monopoly Gamer is technically not a video game, the Koopalings nonetheless act as "bosses" for each deck. The order they are fought in is the same as in Super Mario Bros. 3.
- In Bowser Jr.'s Journey, Larry is fought first, then Iggy and Wendy are fought in the same level; Wendy is the fought one wave before Iggy, before fighting together in the last wave where Iggy is the first officer and Wendy is the captain, and Iggy is fought again later in the game, followed by Roy, and finally Morton. Ludwig and Lemmy are never fought. Dark versions of the Koopalings are fought alongside the final boss, as well as in the final post-game level Beat the Minions!
- In the Nintendo 3DS version of Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, Roy is faced in the second day of the Super Mario campaign, Larry is encountered in the fourth day of the Sonic campaign, and Wendy is challenged in the sixth day of the Super Mario campaign. Once again, in Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020, during the story mode, only three Koopalings appear: Wendy is challenged first, followed by Larry and finally Ludwig.
Although the games themselves initially did not have the Koopalings speak (the DOS version of Mario is Missing! nonwithstanding), the Koopalings did have a variety of voice actors in various Mario media.
In Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros., the Koopalings were voiced by Masaharu Satō (Larry and Iggy), Miyako Endō (Morton and Wendy), and Naoki Tatsuta (Roy, Lemmy, and Ludwig).
In the DIC cartoons, the Koopalings were voiced by James Ransken (Cheatsy), Gordon Masten (Big Mouth), Tabitha St. Germain (Kootie Pie), Tara Charendoff (Hop), Dan Hennessey (Bully), Stuart Stone (Hip), and Michael Stark (Kooky).
The Koopalings appeared in the interactive anime video Super Mario World: Mario to Yoshi no Bōken Land, and there they were given spoken dialogue. Their voice actors were not credited.
In Mario is Missing!, the Koopa Kids, as noted above, were given dialogue. In the CD-ROM Deluxe version, Larry, Iggy and Ludwig were voiced by Rob Wallace, Wendy was voiced by Kathy Fitzgerald, and Roy was voiced by Bruce Sandig, who also voiced the unused clips of Lemmy.
In Super Mario Advance 2: Super Mario World, the Koopalings did have voices, although they just gave dying screeches when defeated by Mario or Luigi. Additionally, they were all similar monster roars, and only Iggy, Lemmy, Wendy and Larry used them.
Starting with 2009's New Super Mario Bros. Wii, the Koopalings were given in-game voice acting, although it was largely composed of grunts and roars instead of actual dialogue. Larry, Morton, Wendy and Lemmy are voiced by Lani Minella, Iggy and Ludwig are voiced by Mike Vaughn, and Roy is voiced by Dan Falcone.
In Mario Kart 8, all the Koopalings, except for Roy, are voiced by new voice actors, with Morton, Ludwig, Iggy, Wendy, Larry and Lemmy being voiced by David Cooke, David J. Goldfarb, Ryan Higgins, Ashley Flannegan, Michelle Hippe and Carlee McManus respectively. This time, they do say actual words and phrases, besides their "No!" yells when defeated in the former games.
In Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U, as well as Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, the Koopalings have reused their voice samples from New Super Mario Bros. Wii.
In Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, the Koopalings have spoken dialogue for the first time since the Mario's Early Years! series. Their voice clips, however, are reused from Mario Kart 8.
In Paper Mario: Color Splash, the Koopalings again have spoken dialogue.
Although the Koopalings never actually spoke in the initial release of Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga beyond uttering roars, they were given dialogue in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions in the alternate story mode Minion Quest: The Search for Bowser, and to a lesser extent in the main game itself (although only Iggy, Ludwig, and Roy are actually seen speaking during this time). The voice clips are again the ones recorded for Mario Kart 8, and they are used in the Bowser Jr.'s Journey mode of Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr.'s Journey, in which the Koopalings have spoken dialogue.
New Super Mario Bros. 2
- North American website bio: "These crooked minions of Bowser await at the end of each world. Watch out—each have their own unique ways of causing trouble for Mario."
Mario Kart Tour
- Mario Kart Tour Twitter: "Bowser Jr. may have joined the race, but he didn't come alone! He brought a few friends along with him, including Lemmy, Wendy, Ludwig, Roy, and the rest of the Koopalings! They each have their own special skills, so be sure to try them all!"
- For this subject's image gallery, see Gallery:Koopalings.
Names in other languages
Kokuppa 7 Kyōdai (Super Mario Bros. 3 box / instruction booklet)
Kokuppa 7 Ninshū (Super Mario World, Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario All-Stars)
Kokuppa-gundan (Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga)
Kuppa no Teshita (New Super Mario Bros. games)
Kuppa 7 Ninshū (Mario Kart 8, Super Smash Bros., Super Mario Memorial Book, Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros.)
|In general:「クッパ」is Bowser's Japanese name. It is ambiguous whether「コ」represents「子」(ko-, child) or「小」(ko, young).「コクッパ」can thus mean "Child Koopa", "Little Koopa", "Young Koopa", etc.「子クッパ」is a rare variant of「コクッパ」, seen on the back of the Japanese Super Mario Bros. 3 box and on the Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario All-Stars. "7" or「七」, when used with「人」to count people, is read as shichi; otherwise it is commonly read as nana.|
コクッパ7兄弟: 7 Little Bowser Siblings
コクッパ7人衆: Team of 7 Little Bowsers
コクッパ軍団: Little Bowser Corps
クッパの手下: Bowser's Minions. Also generally used of the members of Koopa Troop.
クッパ7人衆 / クッパ七人衆: Team of 7 Bowsers
|Chinese (Simplified)||酷霸王7人组 (Super Smash Bros. Ultimate and New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe)
酷霸王７人帮 (Super Mario Maker 2)
酷霸王帮众 (LEGO Super Mario)
|Team of 7 Bowsers|
Bowser Gang of Seven
|Chinese (Traditional)||庫巴的小魔頭們 (New Super Mario Bros. 2)
Kùbā de Xiǎomótóumen
庫巴7人衆 (Super Smash Bros. Ultimate and New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe)
庫巴7人幫 (Super Mario Maker 2 and Ask the Developer Vol. 11)
小庫巴7兄弟 (Super Mario Bros. 35th Anniversary)
Xiǎo Kùbā 7 Xiōngdì
|Bowser's Little Bosses|
Team of 7 Bowsers
Bowser Gang of Seven
7 Little Bowser Siblings
Bowsers handlangers (New Super Mario Bros. games)
|French (NOA)||Koopalins (from New Super Mario Bros. 2 onwards)
|French (NOE)||Les Terreurs de Bowser
Koopalings (Hotel Mario)
Koopas (Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga)
Sbires de Bowser (New Super Mario Bros. games)
Marmots Koopas (Super Mario World instruction booklet)
Bowsers Schergen (New Super Mario Bros. games)
Scagnozzi di Bowser (New Super Mario Bros. games, Mario Kart 8, Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS, Super Smash Bros. for Wii U)
Figli di Bowser (Super Mario All-Stars Limited Edition)
Kupa 7(chil)injo (Super Smash Bros. Ultimate)
Kupa-ui Buhadeul (New Super Mario Bros. Wii)
Kkoma-Kupa 7-hyeongje (Super Mario All-Stars)
|Team of 7 Bowsers|
7 Little Bowser Siblings
|Portuguese (NOA)||Capangas Koopa
Koopalinhos (The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3)
Lacaios do Bowser (New Super Mario Bros. games)
|Pun on "mauzões" (bad guys)|
|Romanian||Copiii Koopa (The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3)
Koopișori (The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3)
Aghiotanții lui Koopa / Koopa aghiotanți (Super Mario World television series, episode "The Yoshi Shuffle")
|The Koopa Kids|
Diminutive for "Koopa"
Koopa's adjutants / Koopa adjutants
|Slovenian||Koopa Otroci||Koopa Children|
|Spanish (NOE)||Esbirros de Bowser
Koopalines (sometimes misspelled as "Koopalingos")
- Larry is the only Koopaling to not have used Warp Pipes in any of his boss battles, with Lemmy and Wendy using them in Super Mario World, Roy using them in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, Morton and Ludwig using them in New Super Mario Bros. 2, and Iggy using them in New Super Mario Bros. U.
- In Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, every Koopaling is associated with Battle Cards. Roy and Wendy are the first bosses on which Battle Cards can be used, Larry and Ludwig are the only bosses that can use their own Battle Cards, and Iggy, Morton, and Lemmy turn the player's Battle Cards into a special kind of Morton Battle Card, which either deals 60 damage to everyone, makes the player lose all of their star points, or gives the player a random Max Item.
- The Prima Games guide of Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3 refers to Boom Boom as a Koopaling, despite listing him separately in the Friends and Foes section.
- As explained on the Koopalings' profile on the New Super Mario Bros. U official site, as well as Larry's Super Smash Bros. for Wii U trophy.
- On page 33 of the Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros., there is this statement:「※取扱説明書のものをそのまま掲載しています。」; despite this, the part of the story where the Koopalings are introduced is this one:「さんざんこらしめたはずの大魔王クッパもマリオのいるキノコ王国からは手を引いたものの今度は子供コクッパ7兄弟を仲間に入れ、ワールドのあちこちでイタズラのやり放題。」; the「自分の」between「今度は」and「子供コクッパ7兄弟」, which roughly means "[Bowser's] own" and is present on page 4 of the original Japanese Super Mario Bros. 3 manual, is absent in this story. The meaning of the sentence is roughly unaltered, as this wording omitting the possessive pronoun has also been used in the Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2 and Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3, the latter of which also used the stronger form of the original story of Super Mario Bros. 3 showing the similar meaning of the two wordings, but the new one is less strong and explicit.
- Super Mario Bros. 3 English instruction booklet. In the story section (pg. 5), they are called "Bowser's 7 kids" and "his 7 children", and Bowser's line (pg. 3) reads "Ha Ha Ha! These are my 7 children that are going to help me take over the Mushroom World!" The children are introduced with the phrase "These are Bowser's kids!!" (pg. 4). Larry (pg. 5), Morton (pg. 9) and Lemmy (pg. 34) refer to Bowser as their father or dad.
- In the Japanese instruction booklet of Super Mario Bros. 3, they are called「
自分の 子供コクッパ7 兄弟」in the story section (pg. 4), and King Koopa's line (pg. 2) reads「ワッハハ。これから 俺様の 息子達がこのゲームの 説明をするぜ。 息子達の 言うことをよーく 聞いてせいぜいガンバルことだな。ワッハハ。」Note Koopa's use of「 俺様の 息子たち」(ore-sama no musuko-tachi), which equates to "my children" (or, literally, "my sons") while at the same time referring to himself in an arrogant manner. The children are introduced with the phrase「そして、これがコクッパ7 兄弟だ！！」(pg. 3). Larry (pg. 4), Morton (pg. 8) and Lemmy (pg. 34) refer to King Koopa as「オヤジ」(oyaji), which is both a Japanese word for "father" as well as a term of endearment.
- Super Mario World English instruction booklet, page 20 (Mysterious Sunken Ship description) "That's right, in Super Mario Bros. 3, Koopa and his kids used a flying ship to make life tough for Mario.".
- Japanese card about the Koopalings in Super Mario World, in which they are referred to as「クッパ
大 魔 王の7 人の 息子たち。」, meaning "The seven children of the (demon/sorcerer) king Bowser.". Note that their name is written with「7兄弟」instead of「7人衆」.
- In Super Smash Bros. Melee, the first trophy of Bowser in Japanese refers to him as having「7人のこども」.
- Super Mario Bros. 3 3DS Virtual Console release on the official Nintendo of Europe site. (June 2014 archive), released December 26, 2013 (Retrieved October 16, 2014)
- Super Mario Bros. 3 on the official Nintendo of Italy site. (Retrieved October 10, 2015)
- Super Mario Bros. 3 on the official Nintendo of Germany site.(Retrieved October 10, 2015)
- Super Mario Bros. 3 on the official Nintendo of Benelux site. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Back of the North American box of Yoshi's Safari.
- A PDF manual for Super Mario Bros. 3 3DS Virtual Console release (March 2023 archive) available on the Nintendo of Japan eShop website, released January 1, 2013. (Retrieved February 15, 2013)
- Nintendo Co., Ltd. (2003). Scans of the Japanese manual of Super Mario Advance 4. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Page 20 of the Japanese Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2. The Koopalings are stated being「7
匹の子ども=コクッパ」, roughly meaning (Bowser's) seven children=Koopalings using an implicit possessive pronoun.
- Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3 Wii U Virtual Console release on the official Nintendo of Europe site. (March 2023 archive), released March 10, 2016 (Retrieved March 21, 2023)
- Interview with Shigeru Miyamoto, taken from Game Informer, issue 234 "Our current story is that the seven Koopalings are not Bowser's children. Bowser's only child is Bowser Jr., and we do not know who the mother is." (Retrieved September 5, 2016)
- "Bowser's oldest Koopaling and second in command, he's a real monster!" - Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, page 9.
- BeardBear (December 3, 2015). Mario & Luigi Paper Jam Walkthrough Part 27 | Neo Bowser Castle #5 & Bosses Koopalings. YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Page 65 of the Japanese Official Nintendo Guidebook of Super Mario All-Stars. The caption states At first Bowser's appearance was not entirely settled. In order to get to this version of the sketch, Kotabe and Tezuka collaborated multiple times. Note how the page is dedicated to the Famicom Disk System version of Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels, known as Super Mario Bros. 2 in Japan.
- Interview with Shigeru Miyamoto in Mario Mania Player's Guide, p. 31.
- As explained by Dayvv Brooks (former Nintendo of America employee), on July 18, 2012.
- Super Mario Bros. 3 Japanese instruction booklet, page 3.
- Super Mario World: From Japanese to English. The Mushroom Kingdom. (Retrieved July 25, 2012)
- Mario kicking Wendy, Bowser and Ludwig, note how Bowser's tail is drawn while Ludwig's tail is not.
- Main cast artwork for Super Mario Bros. 3 in which Iggy's tail can be seen.
- https://play.nintendo.com/activities/quizzes/which-mario-kart-8-racer-are-you-most/ If you get Bowser.
- A Japanese promotional pamphlet for Super Mario Bros. 3 The Koopalings are called「大魔王クッパの子供達」(Daimaō Kuppa no kodomo-tachi), which means "Great Demon King Koopa's children". The picture of this pamphlet is found in every version of Super Mario History 1985-2010 booklet except North American.
- Scans of the original Japanese Super Mario Bros. 3 manual, hosted on Nintendo Co. Ltd. site. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Super Mario Bros. 3 Wii Virtual Console website, released December 11, 2007.
- Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros., page 47 "Bowser sent his seven children to make mischief as they please in the normally peaceful Mushroom World." (October 16, 2018)
- At page 33 of the French translation of Super Mario Bros. Encyclopedia, in the story of Super Mario Bros. 3 it is told Bowser a envoyé ses sept enfants agir comme bon leur semble au sein du Monde des Champignons habituellement plutôt calme. (Bowser sent his seven children to act as they see fit within the usually rather calm Mushroom World). At page 144 in the general enemy description of New Super Mario Bros. Wii it is told Les sept frères et soeurs de la famille Bowser sont également présents[...] (The seven siblings of the Bowser family are also present).
- An excerpt of page 33 of the German translation of the Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros., containing the story of Super Mario Bros. 3. The sentence Allerdings macht er sieben Koopalinge zu seinen Untertanen roughly means Indeed he turned seven Koopalings into his subjects.
- Page 33 of the Spanish translation of the Encyclopedia Super Mario Bros., containing the story of Super Mario Bros. 3. The sentence Sin embargo, esta vez cuenta con la ayuda de los siete Koopalings, que hacen maldades por todas partes. roughly means Nonetheless, this time [he] has the help of the seven Koopalings, who cause troubles everywhere.
- Page 169 of Playing with Power: Nintendo NES Classics, containing part of an interview present in the January/February 1990 issue of Nintendo Power
- Page 196 of Playing with Power: Nintendo NES Classics, containing the story of Super Mario Bros. 3
- Nintendo of Europe. Scans of the European manual of Super Mario Advance 4. Nintendo of Europe CDN. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Page 4 of the Japanese Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3. Note how, while in the story they are referred as [Bowser's] own children (「
自分の 子どもの「コクッパ7 兄弟」」), in Bowser's bio the possessive referred to the children term (「 子どもたち」) is missing like in the case of the Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2.
- The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3: Sneaky Lying Cheating Giant Ninja Koopas
- Page 32 of the first volume of the Japanese Nintendo Official Guidebook of Super Mario World, part of the second unit of the volume, named Character. The reddish purple headers used for both Bowser and the Koopalings indicate that they are part of the Koopa family, as the explanatory header on the upper left corner shows.
- In both the Super Mario World section, the Super Mario Bros. 3 section and the section about the Koopa Troop of the Super Mario Complete Encyclopedia (「スーパーマリオ
全百科」), a book written in 1991 in collaboration with Nintendo, the Koopalings are considered, along with Bowser, to be part of the King Tribe (「 王 族」), that page 89 states being formed by every member of the royal family that leads the Bowser Army corps (「クッパ 軍団を 統率する 王家の 面々」). In particular, their relationship is explained in the Super Mario Bros. 3 section of the book, where the Koopalings are stated, on page 151, to be Bowser's children「クッパの 子ども、コクッパたち」) and where Bowser on page 228 is referred to as the demon/sorcerer king (「 大魔王」) and on page 214 Larry Koopa is stated to be the youngest child of the demon/sorcerer king (「 大魔王の 末っ 子」), while the Koopalings are stated to be siblings as well (「コクッパ7 兄弟」).
- On page 193 of the Perfect Edition of the Great Mario Character Encyclopedia (「パーフェクト版マリオキャラクター大事典」), a book written in 1994 in collaboration with Nintendo, Roy is shown as an example of Bowser's group (「クッパ
系」), further described as the family of the Great King Bowser (「クッパ 大王の 一族」), on page 228 Larry is stated to be the son of the Great Demon/Sorcerer King Bowser (「クッパ 大魔王の 子供」); finally on page 42 the Koopalings are called again the 7 Koopalings Siblings (「コクッパ7 兄弟」).
- On pages 10 and 11 of the Super Mario Bros. Daizukan (「スーパーマリオ大図鑑」) a book written at the end of 1994 under the supervision of Nintendo, the Koopa Troop is stated to have Bowser's seven children as its great leaders (「7
人のクッパの 子どもを 大幹部として」), with the Koopalings presented below. Furthermore, on pages 34 and 35, it is explicitly stated that Koopalings=Bowser's children (「コクッパ=クッパの 子ども」), with Morton and Ludwig presented as one of the seven children of the Great King Bowser (「クッパ 大王の7 人の 子どものひとり」), Larry being presented as the youngest of the seven children of the Great King Bowser (「クッパ 大王の7 人の 子どものすえっ 子」) and Roy's bio starting with Among the sons of Bowser, he's the heaviest (「クッパのむすこの 中で, もっとも 体重が 重い」).
- Pages 2 and 3 of the Japanese manual of Yoshi's Safari, which contain the story of the game. Bowser and the Koopalings are together called「クッパ
達」Koopa-tachi, just like in other Japanese material such as Super Mario Story Quiz Picture Book 6: Friend Kidnapped (「スーパーマリオおはなしクイズえほん 6 さらわれたともだち」).
- Mario is Missing! SNES instruction booklet, page 2.
- The first trophy of Bowser in the Japanese version of Super Smash Bros. Brawl.
- European New Super Mario Bros. Wii website showing the initial name change to "Bowser's Minions" in Europe (albeit while grouped together with Bowser Jr. as the "Koopa Clan").
- New Super Mario Bros. Wii story and character page. Ludwig's bio refers to the Koopalings as「
仲間」, meaning comrades, partners or company. (Retrieved November 17, 2011)
- Bueno, Fernando. New Super Mario Bros. Wii PRIMA Official Game Guide. Page 18. "Just when Mario and the gang were ready to give the Princess her gifts, Bowser's bratty kids crashed the party!"
- Bueno, Fernando. New Super Mario Bros. Wii PRIMA Official Game Guide. Page 129. "After you reach Bowser Jr.'s chamber, the bothersome Koopaling hops into his flying carriage."
- ゲーム情報チャンネル (May 5, 2014). マリオカート8 Direct 2014 4 30 プレゼンテーション映像. YouTube. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- An official poll in which the fifth choice for Bowser's New Year's resolution is "Try to spend more time with the Koopalings." Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- WDW News Today: PHOTO & VIDEO TOUR – Ride Mario Kart: Koopa’s Challenge With & Without AR Headset and Tour The Full Queue in Super Nintendo World
- As an example, Larry's TALK_CUPCHAT_PR_LOSE_LAR_USUAL_0 line in the Wii U version of Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games states「さすがに
予選で 負けるってのは はずかしいな。 仲間たちには 笑われるだろうしクッパさまにはドヤされるだろうし、まいったぜ。」Note the use of both「 仲間」and「クッパさま」.
- aika (December 11, 2015). 【3DS】マリオ＆ルイージRPG ペーパーマリオMIX ルドウィッグ＆ラリー戦. YouTube. Retrieved November 10, 2016. In the dialogue at the beginning of the battle against Larry and Ludwig, Larry does not call Ludwig brother, while in the English versions and in most other Western translations he does.
- Games' Art (December 30, 2015). 38 Mario e Luigi: Paper Jam Bros ITA - Neo Castello di Bowser parte 2. YouTube. Retrieved January 14, 2016. After Iggy presses the button, Lemmy says: "Daaaaaad! This is not fair!".
- LETSPLAYmarkus (January 19, 2016). MARIO & LUIGI: PAPER JAM BROS. # 57 ★ Der letzte und höchste Rang! [HD | 60fps]. YouTube. Retrieved January 19, 2016. After being defeated, Morton says: "Forgive us... Father. I mean, of course... Master Bowser!".
- While in the preview the Koopalings are referred to using the Bowser's minions term (scagnozzi di Bowser) used in the New Super Mario Bros. games, and even though in the final game Morton mentions the boss (il capo) without specifying who he is supposed to be, as soon as Bowser is revealed Ludwig, Wendy, Larry and Roy always refer to him by name without adding any other title, Roy even directly asks Bowser to avenge his defeat, this attempt being absent in the Japanese version. Furthermore, the Koopalings are always referred to as Little Bowsers (Bowserotti, the Italian term originally used for the Koopalings, itself a direct translation of the ｢コクッパ｣ term), as can be seen already before fighting Larry, even when the Japanese version explicitly use the Bowser's minions (｢クッパの
手下｣) term in place of the Team of 7 Bowsers (｢クッパ7 人衆｣) term that should be translated as Bowserotti, as can be seen before fighting Lemmy (where in the Japanese version ｢クッパの 手下｣ is used and in the Italian localization Bowserotti is used instead), as well as in the GB_RedRescue13 line of the 13th Rescue Red Toad who states Hai già sconfitto Morton, Iggy, Ludwig, Wendy e Larry. Ti restano solo due Bowserotti! (while the Japanese version again uses the ｢クッパの 手下｣ term).
- On Page 22 of the Italian manual of Monopoly Gamer Collector's Edition, the Koopalings' bio states I Bowserotti sono sette dei più pericolosi, cattivi e perfidi scagnozzi di Bowser. which means The Koopalings are seven among the most dangerous, bad and malicious minions of Bowser.
- In the Japanese version of Minion Quest: The Search for Bowser Bowser Jr. is stated in his bio to be「大魔王クッパの1人息子」 (Great Demon/Warlock King Bowser's only son), similarly in the Italian localization his bio states È l'unico figlio di Bowser (He's the only son of Bowser) and in the German localization his bio states Bowsers einiziger Sprössling (Bowser's only offspring).
- Story section of the official Japanese site of New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe.
- "Bowser's youngest Koopaling, Larry, has taken over the Grass Land." - Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, page 9.
- "Being one of the older Koopalings, Morton's ship is more advanced than Larry's, and more dangerous!" - Nintendo Power Strategy Guide for Super Mario Bros. 3, page 24.
- Hodgson, David S J. Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3 Prima's Official Strategy Guide. Page 15. "Roy, the guardian of The Sky, is a little heavier than his younger family, and he pounds the ground when he lands from a jump, paralyzing Mario for a moment. Keep off the ground when Roy lands, and employ the regulation "three head stomps or 10 fireballs" takedown method."
- Behind the Voice Actors page of Mario is Missing!.
- https://twitter.com/mariokarttourEN/status/1184257649757622272 Mario Kart Tour Twitter
- Super Mario’s memorial book commemorates his 30th birthday. Newlaunches. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
- hydao. Box shots of the Family Computer version of Super Mario Bros. 3. GameFAQs. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
- Official simplified Chinese website for Super Smash Bros. Ultimate. Retrieved April 5, 2020
- 创作完整的世界地图!? 《 Super Mario Maker 2 》最后的大型数据更新 Ver.3.0.0 版本, 将于4月22日开始发布! Nintendo. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- 拉里和莫顿的飞行战舰扩展关卡 71427 | 乐高®超级马力欧 | LEGO.com CN LEGO.com. Retrieved July 4, 2023.
- Story section of the official New Super Mario Bros. 2 site in Chinese. Nintendo of Hong Kong. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Official traditional Chinese website for Super Smash Bros. Ultimate. Retrieved April 5, 2020
- Story section of the official New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe site in Chinese. Nintendo of Hong Kong. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- Nintendo (April 20, 2020). 《Super Mario Maker 2 (超級瑪利歐創作家 2) 》更新資料Ver.3.0.0介紹影片 YouTube. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- 開發人員的訪談 : 超級瑪利歐兄弟 驚奇｜任天堂 Nintendo. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
- Official Chinese website for the Super Mario Bros. 35th Anniversary website. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Super Mario All-Stars Limited Edition instruction manual (Korean version). pp. 17 and 29.
- Hodgson, David S J. Super Mario Advance 4: Super Mario Bros. 3 Prima's Official Strategy Guide. Page 22. "WORLD FORTRESSES Every world has at least one Fortress. This is usually a set of fearsome hallways guarded by nasties and always ends with a Koopa confrontation, courtesy of Boom Boom the Koopaling. Fortresses are just like regular levels, except that when you beat one, any nearby locks (usually preventing you from accessing pipes or Toad Houses) disappear."