Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars
Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars (known simply as Super Mario RPG in Japan, sometimes referred to as Super Mario Role-Playing Game) is a role playing video game designed by Squaresoft (currently Square Enix) and released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1996. It was the first Mario role-playing game, also last Mario game on the SNES, and worked out fairly well with an action-command battle system. In this game, Mario, with the help of four other characters, needs to stop a new enemy, Smithy, while collecting seven Star Pieces so that peace may return and wishes may be granted once more.
Super Mario RPG's success was limited due to the release of the Nintendo 64 and Super Mario 64 four months later that year. However, the game was placed 21st in the 100th issue of Nintendo Power's "100 best Nintendo games of all time" in 1997. It was released on Virtual Console in Japan on June 24, 2008, in the PAL region on August 22nd, and in North America on September 1, 2008. In Europe, the game is treated as an import game, meaning that only the 60Hz mode is supported, and there has been no further localization. The game costs 800 Wii Points in North America and 900 points in other regions. This was the last game in Square's original deal with Nintendo, and the final Mario game on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
The game begins with a short cutscene. Princess Toadstool sits peacefully on a hill outside Mario's Pad. Suddenly, she is kidnapped by King Bowser using the Koopa Clown Car. Mario exits his house then and sees Princess Toadstool in peril. He chases Toadstool and Bowser and ends up at Bowser's Keep. After going through the castle, Mario finally catches up with Bowser, and proceeds to battle him on the chandeliers. Upon defeating Bowser and rescuing the princess, the castle begins to shake. A giant sword named Exor falls from the sky and crashes into Bowser's keep, destroying the Star Road on the way. The crash sends Mario, Toadstool, and Bowser flying in separate directions.
Mario ends up landing back at his house where Toad has been searching for Toadstool. When Toad discovers that the princess is not there, he asks Mario to go back to Bowser's keep to bring her back. Mario has no idea where she or Bowser are, but goes to check the castle. However, when he arrives he is unable to enter the castle and Exor, the giant sword, tells Mario that the keep is now the property of the Smithy Gang, taken over to help with its quest to take over the world. Exor destroys the bridge and Mario narrowly escapes.
World 1: Mushroom Kingdom
Mario heads back home. Toad gets kidnapped by two Hammer Bros. outside Mario's House. Mario defeats them and rescues Toad. Mario and Toad then travel to Mushroom Kingdom to inform the Chancellor of the Princess's kidnapping. After talking with the chancellor, he meets Mallow, apparently a frog from Tadpole Pond. Mario assists him by chasing after Croco, a thief, to recover a frog coin that was stolen from Mallow. When they return, the Mushroom Kingdom is dark and overrun by monsters.
Mario and Mallow enter the castle and meet with Mack, a member of the Smithy Gang, in the throne room. Mario battles him and wins. After Mack is defeated, a star remains. Mario takes it, not quite knowing what it is.
World 2: Pond to Pipes
Mario and Mallow now head to Mallow's home, Tadpole Pond. On their way, which leads through the dark Kero Sewers, they encounter Belome, a giant, dog-like enemy. After Belome is defeated, the sewers are filled with water, and Mario is flushed down the Midas River. At Tadpole Pond, Mallow's grandfather Frogfucius reveals that he found Mallow floating in a basket as a baby, and is not really his grandfather. He tells Mallow to travel with Mario and find his true home.
Mario and Mallow then travel to Rose Town via the Rose Way. Bowser also happens to be at Rose Way at the same time. He has a group of minions with him and tries to get his castle back from the Smithy Gang. However, Mario and Bowser do not meet. As Mario arrives in Rose Town, it is under attack. Paralyzing arrows are shot from the nearby forest. The two seek shelter in the local inn. There, Mario plays with the innkeeper's son, Gaz, and his Mario, Bowser and Toadstool dolls. As the game continues, Gaz brings out his favorite doll, Geno. However, Mario is knocked out by a stray punch from the toy. While everyone is in bed, a star possesses the Geno doll and walks into the origin of the arrows, the Forest Maze.
The next day, Mario and Mallow follow Geno's path through the Forest Maze, eventually meeting Bowyer, a bow-like creature who fires the paralyzing Aeros. Geno tries to get back the Star Piece that Bowyer holds. It is revealed that the Star Pieces are parts of the Star Road that has been destroyed by Exor. Without the Star Road, wishes are no longer granted. Unable to persuade Bowyer, who is a member of the Smithy Gang, Geno enters combat, and Mario and Mallow join him. Together, they defeat Bowyer and recover the second Star Piece. However, an Aero survives the battle. He hears about the Star Pieces' importance and heads off to inform Smithy.
World 3: Mole Mountains
While Mario is free to go to Yo'ster Isle via the Pipe Vault, the next stop for Mario and his friends in their search for the Star Pieces is Moleville. Again, they happen to be there the same time as Bowser, but do not meet with him. The number of Bowser's minions has seemingly decreased since his time on Rose Way.
The inhabitants of Moleville are upset because Dyna and Mite Mole have been lost. Mario goes into the Moleville Mines to find them. On his way through the vast caves, Mario jumps onto a spring board which pretends to be an exit. However, it's fake, and Mario is smashed against the ceiling. While unconscious, Croco appears again and steals Mario's coins. Mario chases Croco and the Crooks through the mines and eventually faces off against him. Halfway through the battle, Croco steals all of Mario's items. However, after his defeat, Mario and his friends regain the coins and the items.
Going deeper into the mines, Mario meets the criminally insane Punchinello, who wants to defeat Mario in order to become famous. After a long battle, Punchinello drops a giant Bob-omb, which explodes and covers Mario and his friends with soot. However, they are able to get the third Star Piece, which Punchinello has found in the mines. Mario also finds Dyna and Mite, and they exit the mines through the mine kart track.
Meanwhile, Princess Toadstool has fallen from the sky and landed at Booster Tower, the home to the maniacal Booster, who wants to marry her. However, she does not want to and cries out for Mario to help her.
At the time, Mario and his friends, who had previously traveled through Booster Pass, arrive at Booster Tower. The entrance to the tower is locked. However, Bowser shows up again. All of his minions have deserted by this time. On his own, he decides to help out Mario and destroys the tower's front door. He then joins Mario and his friends by making them honorary members of the Koopa Troop.
After heading to the highest level of the large tower, Mario enters Booster's room, right before the balcony where Toadstool is held captive. However, Booster enters and Mario hides behind curtains. Booster is looking for his Mario Doll, which he suspects to be somewhere behind the curtains. He and his Snifits search around. If they manage to find Mario while doing so, Mario will have to fight Booster. In both cases, Booster finds his Mario Doll and heads out to his balcony. Mario and his friends follow him onto the balcony. However, Booster and Toadstool have disappeared, and two helpers of Booster, Knife Guy and Grate Guy, battle Mario.
After Knife Guy and Grate Guy are defeated, Mario continues to follow Booster, who is running up Booster Hill with Toadstool and tries to marry her in the wedding town of Marrymore. Mario disrupts the wedding and wants to take the princess back to the Mushroom Kingdom. However, the creators of the wedding cake, Chef Torte and his apprentice, are angry because of this and fight Mario. During the battle, their cake comes to life. After the fight, Booster eats the cake, and Mario and Toadstool go back to the Mushroom Kingdom.
The Chancellor is glad about the princess's return. However, with the help of her grandmother, who is disguising herself as the princess, Toadstool is able to escape from the castle and join Mario's party. During a short visit at Tadpole Pond, Frogfucius tells Mario he has heard of a Star Piece falling onto Star Hill. Mario heads there instantly and finds the fourth Star Piece, unguarded.
Mario's next stop is Seaside Town. There, he gets told by the "Town Elder" that he saw a star fall into the sea. He asks Mario to get it for him. Mario, knowing that it is a Star Piece, heads off to the sea. He goes through the grottoes by the sea and finally reaches the shore. Underwater, he enters a Sunken Ship on the seabed.
In the Sunken Ship, Mario soon reaches a door which is sealed and can only be opened with the right passwords. There are six rooms where Mario can find hints about the password. With the right word, he can open the door. He proceeds and encounters King Calamari, a giant Blooper who caused the ship to sink in the first place.
After a battle with the monstrosity, Mario reaches the lower levels of the ship, and eventually meets Jonathan Jones, the shark owner of the ship. Jones claims the Star Piece for himself as it fell into "his" sea. However, Mario is able to win the Star Piece in a battle with Jones and leaves the ship.
Upon returning to Seaside Town, Mario is stopped by the "Town Elder" and various other Toads. The "Town Elder" reveals himself to be Yaridovich, a spear-like member of the Smithy Gang. Yaridovich had disguised himself as Seaside Town's entire population in order to persuade Mario searching for the Star Piece for him. As Yaridovich threatens to torture the town's real population, Mario hands over the Star Piece. Yaridovich flees and Mario runs after him. Yaridovich was to be taken by the battleship Blade. However, Blade is late, and Yaridovich, being on a dead end cliff near Seaside Town, sees himself forced to swim, though he admits he might rust when doing so. However, Jonathan Jones jumps out of the water preventing Yaridovich from fleeing. Cornered, Yaridovich changes into his real form and battles Mario and his allies. After a long fight, Mario is able to defeat Yaridovich and regain the fifth Star Piece.
World 5: Land's End
Looking for the sixth Star Piece, Mario and his friends travel to Land's End. After climbing the mountain and clearing the desert area, they are unable to proceed because the cliff is too high. So they search a way to the underground and end up in Belome Temple. There, they encounter Belome for a second time. The hungry dog monster tries to eat them, but again gets defeated. After the fight, Mario goes further underground and reaches Monstro Town.
In Monstro Town, Monstermama calls Sergeant Flutter to help Mario climb the huge cliff in Land's End. She says that the sixth Star Piece has to be somewhere in the clouds, as there is no place on land left to look for it. With the help of Flutter and his Sky Troopas, Mario and his friends discover the Bean Valley. In a Warp Pipe in Bean Valley, a Beezo grows a giant Piranha Plant, the Megasmilax. Mario and company have to defeat it in order to gain access to the giant tendril which leads up to the clouds and to Nimbus Land.
World 6: Nimbus Land
As Mario reaches Nimbus Land's plaza, Valentina is currently giving a speech to the residents. She says that King Nimbus is ill at the moment and cannot do his business. Also, she introduces the giant bird Dodo as being the lost Prince Mallow. Though Dodo looks nothing like a Nimbus Person and cannot speak, Valentina claims the "prince" wants to marry her, thus making her the queen of Nimbus Land. She then leaves for the castle, which is closed for the public.
Though Mallow does not realize at first that he is the actual prince, he is told so by Garro, a sculptor for the royal family. Garro agrees to help Mario and Mallow against Valentina. He coats Mario in gold, disguising him as one of Garro's statues. He takes it to Nimbus Castle with other statues for Valentina. Inside, Mario barely escapes Dodo's wrath as he pecks on random statues instead of polishing them on Valentina's behalf. He takes off the statue disguise and fights his way through the heavily guarded castle.
On their route through the castle, Mario and his friends encounter a giant Shelly, which turns out to be Birdo who is working for Valentina. After defeating her, Mario gets to the back door of Nimbus Castle and falls down a few layers of clouds. He quickly heads back to the plaza of Nimbus Land, where he meets Valentina and Dodo. After being defeated by Mario, Valentina falls through the clouds and, surprisingly, ends up at Booster Tower, just as Toadstool did before.
Mallow is then reunited with his parents, King and Queen Nimbus. They say they heard a Star Piece has fallen into the nearby Barrel Volcano. So, Mario and his friends drop of the clouds from a specific place and fall right into the chimney of the volcano. The heroes fight their way through the hot volcano and take a stop at Hinopio's shop and inn. Shortly afterwards, they face a great wyrm known as the Czar Dragon, the guardian of the sixth Star Piece. They manage to defeat the fiery wyrm, but it resurrects and becomes the undead abomination, the dreaded bonewyrm Zombone. However, the bonewyrm is defeated. As Mario tries to collect the Star Piece, it is snatched away before his hands by the Axem Rangers.
The Axem Rangers, five members of the Smithy Gang, run away with the Star Piece through Barrel Volcano, shortly followed by Mario and his friends. On top of the volcano, they head onto Blade, the huge battleship that failed to take away Yaridovich earlier. On Blade, Mario and company defeat all the Axem Rangers and also destroy the ship's Breaker Beam. Blade is destroyed, and Mario finally gets the sixth Star Piece.
After meeting King and Queen Nimbus again, Mario and his friends take Nimbus Land's Royal Bus to get access to Bowser's Keep, which is unreachable through any other means because Exor destroyed the bridge to the nearby Vista Hill.
All members of the Koopa Troop in Bowser's Keep have either defected to or been brainwashed by the Smithy Gang. However, many are scared off by their former boss Bowser. Mario meets Croco again, who does not fight him this time, but rather offers him help by selling his items.
Mario then reaches a room with doors to six corridors, of which he has to clear four. Two corridors are action courses, two are fighting areas, and two are puzzle courses led by Dr. Topper. In the fighting areas, Mario can encounter enemies such as the Chester. All enemies in the fighting areas are created by a brainwashed Magikoopa and the Statues.
After the required amount of courses is cleared, Mario proceeds and fights the brainwashed Magikoopa. After its defeat, the Magikoopa comes to its senses again and helps out Mario's party, creating a Treasure Box with unlimited coins as well as healing them. Croco also appears for a second time offering his items.
Mario reaches the final room of the keep again, and gets onto the chandeliers he fought Bowser on at the beginning of the game. This time, the enemy is the Smithy Gang swordsman Boomer. After Mario and his friends defeat Boomer, he falls down. The chandelier with Mario on it is transported upwards by a Chandeli-Ho to the highest tower of the keep. There, Mario's party finally enters combat with Exor. The giant sword foe is shielded by its eyes in battle. However, after the eyes are "knocked out", Mario and company can defeat Exor. However, with his last ounce of strength, Exor inhales Mario and his party with its mouth, the Neosquid, which acts as a portal to Smithy's dimension.
Mario, Toadstool, Bowser, Mallow and Geno are brought to Smithy's Factory, his base of operation for the invasion of Mushroom Kingdom. In the gloomy universe, they have to fight many previous enemies a second time. Notably, Machine Mades, which are gray copies of Mack, Bowyer, Yaridovich and the Axem Rangers, are produced en masse in the Factory. Additionally, they encounter Count Down, a giant clock which is controlled by the bell-like Ding-A-Lings.
They also fight the duo of Cloaker and Domino. When either one of them is defeated, the other runs away to make use of his giant snake. Domino's snake is Mad Adder, while Cloaker's is Earth Link. However, even with the help of the snake, he is defeated by Mario. Mario and company then enter the production lines of the Factory. There, they have to fight the Factory's Clerk, Manager and Director before meeting the Factory Chief. The Factory Chief is using the Gunyolk in battle. However, he still is defeated by Mario.
The five heroes finally meet Smithy at the basement of the Factory. Smithy is constantly creating more weapons with his hammer and the Smelter. He also holds the seventh and last Star Piece. Refusing to give it away, he starts to fight Mario and his allies. At first, he use the Smelter to create Shypers to aide him in battle. However, he is soon defeated. Angry, he slams the floor with his hammer several times. Because the floor has only been constructed the day before, it breaks and Smithy, along with Mario and company, falls down to a dark area below the Factory.
Furious, Smithy changes into his real form for the final battle. With his hammer, he has the power to transform his head into five different forms, all with special abilities. However, after a long battle, he is defeated and destroyed by Mario and his friends.
With all seven Star Pieces restored, Geno thanks the others and says goodbye, before leaving the form of a doll and returning to a small star. The Star Road is restored, and Mario, Mallow, Bowser, Toadstool and the Geno doll are returned to Mario's World. Exor dissolves into thin air.
Here's what happened in the end according to each star:
As the credits roll, there is a parade featuring every character in it. In his only confirmed appearance in the game, Luigi is the parade grand marshal.
During their adventure, Mario and his friends are free to visit several optional places in the world.
The biggest of them is Yo'ster Isle, the home island of the Yoshis, which can be reached via the Pipe Vault between Rose Town and Moleville. The Pipe Vault is held in the traditional side-scrolling manner of earlier Mario games such as Super Mario Bros., and features classical enemies such as Piranha Plants. On Yo'ster Isle, Mario meets Yoshi and can ride him. On Yoshi's back, Mario will be able to talk to other Yoshis on the island, with Yoshi translating their words from the Yoshi language. On Yoshi's back, Mario can compete in the Mushroom Derby, a racing minigame, against the island's champion, the rude Boshi. Entry into the derby requires Yoshi Cookies. After winning the Mushroom Derby, Mario has access to Yoshi Cookies outside the island. He can summon Yoshi in battle, who will swallow smaller enemies, leaving back a certain item or a Yoshi Candy.
Another optional place to visit is Grate Guy's Casino, which opens after Mario's quest to Nimbus Land. To enter it, Mario has to get the membership card by Knife Guy in Booster's Tower, then find the secret entrance to the casino in Bean Valley. The casino offers several minigames to win coins.
In Monstro Town, there is a sealed door. Mario only can open it with a Shiny Stone, which he can get from a girl mole in Moleville if the player give her fireworks, which they can get from a male mole in Moleville for 500 coins. When they open the door, the player will then meet Culex.
After retrieving the star in Seaside Town, return to the Mushroom Kingdom, in one building there will be a kid playing a video game. Talk to him for awhile, and he will give Mario a minigame, entitled Beetlemania.
Mario fights with two of his four partners at a time, though he is able to switch partners outside of battle. The characters have many stats that grow as they level up:
In addition, each time a character levels up, they can choose one of three groups of stats to gain a bonus in: attack and defense, HP, or magic attack and magic defense. Special skills can be performed by using flower points, or FP. These flower points are not raised by leveling up, but by special items such as the Flower Tab. Occasionally and at random, an item will be used without being consumed as normal, called a "freebie" by the game.
Battles begin by moving into an enemy on a main game map. In battle, characters have four options:
Many of these options can be improved by the "Timed Hit", which helps them in many ways when the player presses any button at the correct time. Depending on the timing, these commands can increase physical damage by 1.5x if done okay, or 2x if done well. They can also block half damage from physical damage if done okay, and ALL of it if done well. Magical attacks can be timed as well for more damage. However, any enemy magic attack (and some physical attacks) cannot be blocked in this manner. In addition, a correctly Timed Hit with an Item can result in a "Freebie", meaning that an item is used, but not consumed from the inventory. However, the timing window for doing this is very narrow.
After defeating an enemy, the character who defeated it will occasionally receive a flower that gives them a special bonus. Through enough stat bonuses after battling, each member of the party can reach a maximum level of 30.
In battle, Mario uses powerful attacks, hitting his enemies with various Hammers, Koopa Shells or simply his hands. His magic attacks involve jumping and fire magic. When Mario falls in battle, his allies can still fight on and win the battle for him.
Mallow is, at first, believed to be a simple tadpole from Tadpole Pond even though he looks nothing like one. He is the first partner Mario meets, joining Mario during his first visit to the Mushroom Kingdom. He was raised by Frogfucius who found him floating in a basket as a baby. Later, when Mallow and Mario visit Frogfucius, it is revealed that Mallow is not a frog and that his real parents are out there, somewhere. Late in the game, Mario and his party visit Nimbus Land, whose citizens are all of the same species as Mallow. There, Mallow discovers that he is a prince and his parents are King Nimbus and Queen Nimbus.
He has a variety of attacks useful for attacking all of the enemies at one time. He has powerful control over the weather: outside of battle, when he cries, a heavy rainstorm starts. In battle, he can summon things from lightning to snow to a healing rain. In addition, he has a harmless but useful attack, Psychopath, that shows how much HP an enemy has remaining and a quote from the enemy's mind when the player manages to do a Timed Hit.
Geno is the second to join. He is from Star Road, and, while his real form appears to be a small star, he takes the form and name of Gaz's doll while with Mario. He reveals to the party what the Star Pieces discovered by Mario are and their importance.
Bowser, for the first time in the series, joins Mario's side. His goal was to take his keep back from Smithy's gang. He and Mario reluctantly join at Booster Tower. He doesn't have as great a variety of special attacks as the other members of the team, though he is physically incredibly strong.
Princess Toadstool/Peach is the last to join. She was kidnapped at the beginning of the game, and, right when Mario rescued her, was sent flying off. After falling from the sky, she was discovered by Booster and held in his tower. Booster attempted to marry her, but she was eventually rescued by Mario and returned to the Mushroom Kingdom, apparently to stay. However, with the help of her grandmother, who disguised herself as the princess, Toadstool sneaked away to join Mario's party.
Her special skills are mostly defensive (with two crowd control spells in her mix) and healing, not offensive. Her healing skills can be incredibly useful, she can resurrect a fallen partner, and she can make a battle against tough foes and large crowds easier by putting them to sleep or by muting spell casters.
Mario and his party visit many places over the course of the game.
Mario encounters many adversaries during the course of Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars; the main antagonists are the Smithy Gang, members of which are listed in bold below.
Unlike the Paper Mario series, there are no definable "chapters", and therefore there are no definable "chapter bosses"; any significant enemy with higher HP is considered a boss.
Virtual Console differences
One attack used by many bosses, Flame Wall, looks radically different from the original game. In the original version, a wave of red, orange, and yellow flows to the left of the screen. In the Virtual Console version, the wave is separated, only red, and somewhat faded. Also, Static E! is changed from a bright, blue & white flash to a deep blue one. This was changed in order to avoid players possibly having seizures. Also, Moleville has a considerably darker color scheme. Otherwise, the game was not localized. This means keeping the American SNES dark/light purple button layout in battle mode and against Bowyer, while the European SNES has the /// buttons colored as in the Japanese version.
Wii Shop Description
Set in the Mushroom Kingdom and featuring its cast of well-known characters, this adventure RPG begins with a familiar scenario. Mario™ must rescue Princess Toadstool™ from Bowser™. However, a mysterious new enemy named Smithy soon appears, and Mario and Bowser are forced to fight as allies for the first time in their long history. In the quest to defeat their powerful new foe, they'll journey across a wide variety of locations (a town of mining moles, a tropical forest, a thundering waterfall—just to name a few) and tackle a mix of obstacles requiring both expert timing and strategy to overcome. Along the way, they'll gain experience and grow more powerful, while also meeting new characters whose unique abilities will be needed to take on Smithy and his gang. Striking a perfect balance of traditional RPG elements and the action-packed game play Mario is famous for, it's easy to see why this title has earned "legendary" status!
Mario + 7 stars + 249 Virtual Console titles = ?The launch of the 250th title available on Virtual Console™, of course! And what better game to mark the occasion with than the eagerly anticipated Super NES™ game, Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars™? Whether you're celebrating the Labor Day holiday, relishing the last few days before school begins, or just looking for a brand-new retro title to enjoy, this is one game sure to please. By combining the magic of traditional Mario™ titles with the renowned design skills of Square Enix, Super Mario RPG satisfies fans across the board. So if you've been waiting to take on Smithy again or never even knew that Mario and Bowser™ were once allies, now's the time to experience one of Mario's grandest adventures! Still want more info on Super Mario RPG? Then be sure to watch the video now available on the Nintendo Channel for a sneak peak on what the game has in store for you.
Also make sure to check out the other Virtual Console titles available for download. You won't find a more complete assortment of games from your favorite systems and genres available in one spot. From classic franchises to previously unavailable imports, you'll be sure to find titles that suit your gaming tastes!Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars™ is rated Everyone by the ESRB.
Cameos and references
The music score was released as a CD only in Japan as Super Mario RPG Original Sound Version. The Super Mario RPG Original Sound Version is a Japan-exclusive soundtrack product that was released on March 8, 1996. All the tracks listed in this page were composed by Yoko Shimomura.
Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars was developed by Squaresoft, with directing duties being split between Chihiro Fujioka and Yoshihiko Maekawa . Yoko Shimomura composed the soundtrack. Several members of the staff, including the aforementioned composer and directors, would later join AlphaDream and work on the Mario & Luigi series.
The game was the last work of noted videogame translator Ted Woolsey at Squaresoft.
Material from an early Nintendo Power shows that the Chancellor was once designed differently, being a more elderly-looking, gray-spotted Toad with a beard. It also showed that at least one Buzzer would be in Mushroom Way, and that Frogfucius's island at Tadpole Pond would be closer and therefore accessed differently.
There were also several unused enemies such as:
When the player gets to the room where Mack is faced, instead of going straight to battle him, the player can jump on top of the Shysters on the left side, and carefully walk on them. If the Mack scene does not trigger when the player falls off them, the glitch has been performed correctly. The player must then walk to the Chancellor in the corner, and talk to him to finish the glitch.
References to other games
References in later games