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It appears that the Cobalt Shard does not exist anymore in the Mario universe, as Elder Princess Shroob states that the star "is no more". Also, the Elder Shroob Princess can create time holes during the final battle, suggesting that she absorbed the Cobalt Star's powers to enhance her own.
Cobalt Shard Locations
Below is a list of where the six Cobalt Shards of the Cobalt Star are located.
Names in other languages
When the Cobalt Star Shard goes near the Junior Shrooboid, the sound that a Shroob UFO makes is heard.