From the Super Mario Wiki
The Angry Sun is a small, evil sun that first appeared in Super Mario Bros. 3. It is decidedly not the same gigantic celestial body that the planet orbits, and appears to be just merely bigger than Mario. This blazing creature is only found in two levels, making it a rare enemy.
Super Mario Bros. 3
The Angry Sun appears twice in Super Mario Bros. 3. The first time it appears is in World 2-, and the second one time in World 8-2, in the heart of the Koopa Kingdom, Dark Land. To attack Mario, the Angry Sun swoops down in a U-shaped arch, attempting to hit the plumber. The Angry Sun can be destroyed by a Koopa Shell, or with hammers from the Hammer Suit. However, if the player is unable to do this, they could also defeat it by finishing the level. In World 8-2, the Angry Sun can also be bypassed by taking either of the secret Warp Pipes near the beginning of the level. The Angry Sun notably only appears in desert-like areas.
The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3
The Angry Sun also appears in The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3, starting with the episode "Sneaky Lying Cheating Giant Ninja Koopas". During the episode, the Angry Sun, offended by Mario's statement that "the sun was in his eyes", appears to attack Mario and Luigi after they exit a Warp Tube from Prince Hugo's castle; after several minutes of fleeing the Angry Sun, Mario and Luigi manage to gain a Super Leaf and transform into Raccoon Mario and Raccoon Luigi. With their new powers, Mario and Luigi begin to fly away from the Angry Sun, who catches up to them and asks the two "flying raccoons" if they saw where Mario and Luigi went; Mario and Luigi respond to the Angry Sun's question by saying that they went to hide behind a cloud, which the Angry Sun hastily flies to.
The Angry Sun also makes a minor appearance in a later episode of The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3; "Do the Koopa". Here, it is shown dancing with a pyramid and a Sphinx in Desert Land. It is white, and for the first time, grinning. The scene of Mario and Luigi avoiding the sun's attack also appears in the ending credits.
Mario Kart series
The Angry Sun appears in the Desert Hills course of Mario Kart DS, where it shoots Fire Snakes onto the course. It does the same for this racetrack that reappeared in Mario Kart Wii. Angry Sun sprites from Super Mario Bros. 3 are also printed on some carpets in Shy Guy Bazaar from Mario Kart 7 and Bone-Dry Dunes from Mario Kart 8.
Names in other languages