This page highlights the melodramatic parts of this revision before a user came and revised it. During this time, the article was nominated to be unfeatured due to the terrible writing. The fun parts are bolded.
- 1 Background
- 2 Super Mario series
- 3 Super Mario Land series
- 4 Hotel Mario
- 5 Yoshi series
- 6 Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars
- 7 Mario Party series
- 8 Paper Mario series
- 9 Mario & Luigi series
- 10 Super Princess Peach
- 11 Goomba Leadership and Allegiances
The original homeland of the Goombas was in the Mushroom Kingdom, which they shared with another fungus-based species, the Toads. The two races lived in peace. However, at an unknown point in time, the Goombas betrayed their mushroom brothers, and joined the militaristic Koopa Troop. This event apparently occurred a long time ago, even before the birth of the famous heroes Mario and Luigi. In fact, Goombas were members of the Koopa Troop when King Bowser was still a child. However, it is important to note that not all Goombas joined the Koopas; some Goombas continued to live in peace with the Mushroom Kingdom (such as the inhabitants of Goomba Village), while others became independent bandits and thieves.
Super Mario series
Super Mario Bros.
After many years had passed, Bowser matured into adulthood, and Goombas finally became the backbone of the Koopa Troop. By the time of Super Mario Bros., Goombas were the most common soldier in the ranks of Bowser's army. These mushrooms were deployed en masse during Bowser's first invasion of the Mushroom Kingdom. In the game, Goombas occupied almost every level (except underwater levels): these enemies resided not only above ground, but also in subterranean caves and in conquered castles.
In this game, Goombas were simple soldiers who could only damage Mario or Luigi by walking into one of the plumbers. These brown Goombas were extremely weak, and could be defeated by a single stomp or fireball; a Goomba could also be destroyed by hitting the block it was standing on from below. A single Goomba would only walk in one direction, but upon collision with an obstacle or another enemy, would turn around and walk in the opposite direction. These Goombas would also blindly walk off ledges, often falling into a . Many Goombas would attack the Mario Bros. in groups of two or three, forcing the heroes to taken caution when attacking the squad of mushrooms. To defeat a group of Goombas, Mario or Luigi could either patiently stomp one Goomba at a time to avoid being attacked by the following enemy, or time a combo of jumps to stomp one Goomba after the other. This combo attack would not only destroy the whole group if properly timed, but would also increase the number of points Mario or Luigi gained for each subsequent Goomba defeated. Fire Mario could quickly dispatch a group of Goombas; however, the plumber would not earn a point bonus for this attack. Kicked Shells could also be used to clear long rows of Goombas. This special attack would rack up points, and possibly earn extra lives.
Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels
Bowser would again employ Goombas during his second bid for the Mushroom Kingdom throne, as seen in the game Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels. However, during this invasion, many Goombas were replaced by the much stronger Buzzy Beetles, a species resilient to fire. Regardless, a large number of Goombas were deployed in strategic enclosed locations with little jumping room. This strategic placement of Goombas made the weak mushrooms a potential threat to the Mario Bros.
Super Mario Bros. 3
During the events of Super Mario Bros. 3, Goombas were deployed by the Koopa Troop in high numbers across the seven kingdoms of Mushroom World. These Goombas behaved just like their brethren from Super Mario Bros. and Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels. Goombas were stationed in all seven kingdoms, and were the basic grunt soldier the Mario Bros. faced during their liberation efforts. This attack also saw the introduction of a vast array of Goomba sub-species that aided their relatives in combat. The winged Paragoombas provided air support, while their children, the tiny Micro-Goombas (also known as Mugger Micro-Goombas), limited the jumping ability of the Mario Bros. These Micro-Goombas would also hide in bricks, becoming Pile Driver Micro-Goombas, and would use the element of surprise to catch the two heroic plumbers off-guard. The gigantic Grand Goombas helped invade the fourth kingdom Giant Land; however, these giants were actually no stronger than the common Goomba.
Super Mario 64
Goombas were a staple force during Bowser's attack on Peach's Castle, as seen in the games Super Mario 64 (and Super Mario 64 DS). Like other relatively recent campaigns by the Koopa Troop, Goombas were not deployed in high numbers like in Bowser's early invasions. However, that being said, Goombas did occupy a number of painting worlds, including Bob-omb Battlefield, Shifting Sand Land, Tiny-Huge Island, and Tall Tall Mountain (among others). Notably, on the DS remake, Goomboss, the ruler of the Goombas, managed to capture Mario and imprison him within the confines of the castle. This was an impressive act of revenge against the hero who had been stomping Goombas for many years. Yoshi eventually saved his friend Mario from Goomboss and his Goomba hordes.
During this adventure, Goombas acted differently than their previous counterparts. Instead of walking back and forth in a straight path, Goombas would patrol a small area in a circular motion. When the fungus spotted an enemy, the Goomba would jump in surprise and charge at the foe. Despite these behavioral changes, Goombas were among the weakest enemies in the game. A single stomp would destroy a Goomba; while such attacks as punches and kicks would also defeat the mushroom in one hit. Bob-ombs and Koopa shells were also effective weapons to use against these baddies. When destroyed, a Goomba would give up a Yellow Coin or, in several levels, a Silver Star, bringing the player closer to completing their goal. In Super Mario 64 DS, when playing as Yoshi, Goombas would sometimes wear a Mario, Luigi, or Wario cap. Upon defeating the Goomba, the cap could be claimed to transform into the respective character. In this game, Goombas often appeared in groups of two or three. If Yoshi spat out a Goomba at another Goomba or most types of enemy before the Goomba turned into an egg, the Goomba would come out green and would kill or damage the other enemy, along with killing itself, upon contact.
New Super Mario Bros.
Goombas were once again loyal soldiers to Bowser, and his son Bowser Jr., during the events of New Super Mario Bros. In the game, Goombas occupied various lands of the Mushroom Kingdom, blocking Mario's way as he attempted to rescue Princess Peach from Bowser Jr. Goombas remained loyal to the Koopa Troop and Bowser Jr., even after the death of King Bowser (Interestingly, Bowser Jr. used the Goomba look-alike Strollin' Stus in his previous adventure, instead of Goombas.). Goombas worked in groups in the game, attempting to bump into Mario to harm him. Stomps, fireballs, and shells made quick work of these foul mushrooms. However, as Mini Mario, the red-clad hero was not strong enough to destroy a Goomba with a simple stomp attack. While pint-sized, Mario had to perform a Ground Pound to destroy the much larger Goomba. Paragoombas also reappeared in this game, along with another tiny Goomba sub-species, the Mini Goomba. The Mega Goomba, a Goomba mega-sized by Bowser Jr.'s Mega Mushroom, caused a lot of trouble for Mario in the castle of World 4. Goombas "dance" to the electronic chorus riff in the background music by doing a short hop, strangely, they hop high enough for them to dodge incoming Koopa Shells.
Super Mario Galaxy
Goombas appear in Super Mario Galaxy, leaving the confines of Mushroom World to set up camp on other planets.
Super Mario Land series
Super Mario Land
- Main article: Chibibo
Although many Goombas are loyal to Bowser, quite a few ally themselves with other major villains. While the common Goombas did not appear in the game Super Mario Land, an extremely similar Goomba species known as the Chibibo did. These timid mushrooms were deployed in large numbers by the alien Tatanga during his invasion of Sarasaland. Chibibos looked and behaved exactly like Goombas, implying that they are an extremely close relative.
Super Mario Land 2: Six Golden Coins
The greedy Wario, used Goombas (not Chibibos) during his occupation of Mario Land while the heroic plumber was busy liberating Sarasaland from the aforementioned space invader during the events of Super Mario Land 2: Six Golden Coins. Goombas were not deployed in large numbers though; the mushrooms were limited to just a few levels. However, the ghastly Terekuribos, the Japanese name for Goomba ghosts, were seen in large numbers in the Pumpkin Zone of Mario Land during Wario's rule.
Wario Land: Super Mario Land 3
- Main article:
Interestingly, Wario's first nemesis (in the post-Mario Land era), Captain Syrup, used another species similar to Goombas known as in her battles against the greedy anti-hero.
Four varieties of Goomba appeared in the game Hotel Mario. These mischievous Goombas aided Bowser in his attempt to transform the Mushroom Kingdom into his personal resort. Goombas guarded the seven hotels set up by Bowser's Koopalings. In the game, Goombas attempted to prevent Mario from shutting down the seven Koopa Hotels. To do this, Mario had to shut all the doors in each hotel. Regular Goombas opposed his efforts by slowly walking to closed doors and opening them (as well as generally just getting in the plumber's way). Paragoombas (called Flying Goombas in this game) also appeared. Two new types of Goomba, the Bellhop Goomba and the Rhinestone Goomba, make their only appearance in this game.
Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island
During the early years of Bowser's life, Goombas saw limited deployment. A large portion of the Koopa Troop was made up of Shy Guys and Koopa Troopas at this time – Goombas were not the common enemy they would become in later years. In fact, during the events of Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island, Goombas only appeared in one level: World 4-1 GO! GO! MARIO!! In this level, Goombas would attempt to walk into Yoshi, knocking off Baby Mario so that the child could be captured by Kamek's Toadies. These mushroom baddies would walk very slowly, and though were extremely resilient, they did not pose much of a threat. When Yoshi stomped the brown fungus, the Goomba would flatten like a pancake, but not be destroyed; they could even walk into and damage Yoshi in this state. After some time, the Goomba would "pop" and assume its standard mushroom shape. These durable Goombas could be defeated with a well aimed egg toss, a powerful Ground Pound attack, or simply be eaten by Yoshi and transformed into Yoshi Eggs. The brown mushroom could also be eaten and immediately spat out to attack other nearby enemies. Strangely, before these Yoshi's Island Goombas jumped off a ledge, they would wiggle their eyebrows.
Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars
|Super Mario RPG Enemy|
|Location(s)||Mushroom Way, Bandit's Way, Pipe Vault|
|"Goomba, gumba... phew!"|
Goombas were among the weakest members of the Koopa Troop during the events of Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars. However, they were stronger than the Terrapin, a low-level Koopa soldier. In the game, many Goombas were stationed at Mushroom Way, the area between Bowser's Keep and the Mushroom Kingdom. Goombas, under the command of two Hammer Bros., patrolled the paths of Mushroom Way, and would attack or capture any intruders. In fact, Toad himself was captured by a group of Goombas while the fungus adviser was on his way to the Mushroom Kingdom. Other Goombas not loyal to the Koopa Troop resided in Bandit's Way, working as independent thieves. Wild Goombas lived in the Pipe Vault, a secret area near Rose Town. Although as strong as the Goombas from Mushroom Way and Bandit's Way, these underground dwelling Goombas were encountered much later in the game, and thus were not considered much of a threat. Other independent Goombas lived in the caves of the Midas River. These Goombas were more concerned with catching the river's fish to eat than battling outsiders. In battle, Goombas would attack enemies by biting. They could also shoot sharp thorns to cause 50% more damage than usual.. Goombas were fairly weak, and could often be destroyed by a simple Timed Hit. A Goomba's bite attack could be blocked by defending right after the mushroom performed a somersault. The damage of a Goomba's thorn could be blunted by defending right before the projectile hit the party member. Additionally, Goombas typically fought in groups of two to three (either with other Goombas or stronger monsters). When defeated, Goombas would often yield HP MAX! Flowers to Mario and his party.
Besides the small outpost at Mushroom Way, the Koopa Troop, as a whole, was actually on the verge of collapse. During the events of the game, the Koopa Troop was devastated by the invasion of the extraterrestrial Smithy Gang. The mechanical monstrosities chose Bowser's Keep as their base-of-operations in Mushroom World. As a result, many soldiers in the Koopa Troop switched sides to join the invaders while others simply ran away, instead of fighting the powerful aliens and defending their headquarters. Among the defectors were the powerful Gu Goombas, who later became guards for the Smithy Gang. One Goomba deserter found his way to Monstro Town, a community of reformed monsters. This lone Goomba set up shop here, selling powerful Koopa-based armor and weapons. The Goomba was also aided by his three Goombette nephews, the Triplets (other Goombettes, not related to this Goomba, appeared in the Sunken Ship).
After the Koopa Troop was expelled from Bowser's Keep, King Bowser himself attempted to reassemble the tattered remains of his military in Rose Way. Many Goombas remained loyal to Bowser and joined him in his quest to retake the castle, but by the time the army reached Moleville, many Goombas had abandoned Bowser. By the time Bowser reached Booster Tower, all of Bowser's army (including all his Goombas) had deserted their former king. However, at the tower, Bowser decided to join forces with Mario, knowing that with the plumber's strength, the king could get his keep back. Eventually, Bowser, Mario, Princess Peach, Mallow, and Geno found their way to Monstro Town. While in the haven for reformed monsters, the Koopa King ran into the Goomba deserter who had set up shop in the village. The Goomba apologized for deserting the Koopa Troop, but offered to sell Bowser powerful weapons and armor in return. Eventually, Bowser, with the help of Mario and his friends, managed to expel the Smithy Gang and defeat their leader, the diabolical Smithy. With his keep returned, many former soldiers (including many Goombas) returned to King Bowser and the Koopa Troop. In fact, many Goombas helped rebuild Bowser's Keep to its former glory.
Mario Party series
Goombas are a common sight in the various Mario Party titles. Typically, Goombas are in charge of Battle Mini-Games, although sometimes the fungi are replaced by Bob-ombs. Interestingly, a Goomba was Luigi's partner in Mario Party 3. A gambling Goomba was the host of a casino-themed board in Mario Party 4. In Mario Party 8, Goombas once again obtained a major role, where a large pirate Goomba operated his own board, Goomba's Booty Boardwalk. Also, on the same board, there is a sacred island off the coast that is home to the , an unseen diety who gives the player a Star. Besides these notable examples, Goombas have appeared as shopkeepers, in mini-games, and on gameboards to initiate certain events.
Mario Party 4
In Mario Party 4, Goomba appears as one of the hosts of the Party Cube, along with Toad, Boo, Shy Guy and Koopa Troopa. He wore a glittery pink top hat and a glittery pink vest and hosted both Goomba's Greedy Gala and the mini-game room. Speaking of minigames, Goombas appeared in Long Claw of the Law as an outlaw, GOOOOOOOAL!! as a crowd member and Goomba's Chip Flip in Story Mode, as the character you fight against. He also acts as the referee in the Beach Volley Folley minigame.
Paper Mario series
|Paper Mario Enemy|
Goombas were a staple of Bowser's army during his attempt to take the Mushroom Kingdom with the power of the Star Rod in the game Paper Mario. In fact, many varieties of Goombas aided the Koopa King. Goomboss (this time named the Goomba King) returned, commanding a large group of Goombas that resided in Goomba Road, the pathway between Goomba Village and Toad Town. Besides regular Goombas, the Goomba King controlled a large number of Paragoombas and Spiky Goombas, Goombas that wore spiked helmets to counter Mario's jumping ability. The Goomba King's two loyal henchmen, Red Goomba and Blue Goomba, appeared in the game as well. A new sub-species of Goomba, known as the Gloomba, was also introduced. These dark Goombas lived underground, and also had Paragloomba and Spiky Gloomba relatives. Hyper Goombas, green-colored Goombas similar to the Gu Goombas, were first seen in this game. These powerful Goombas could charge their attack power, and were a major threat to Mario. Again, Hyper Goombas had a Hyper Paragoomba and a Hyper Spiky Goomba variant.
The regular brown Goombas of Paper Mario behaved similarly to their counterparts in Super Mario 64. These bad mushrooms would patrol a small area, and upon seeing Mario, would charge at the plumber. In battle, Goombas attacked by using the "Headbonk" technique. The mushroom would jump in the air, then dive into Mario, bonking its head against the hero's. This attack could be blocked by defending just as the Goomba's head touched Mario. If struck by the attack, Mario would take one HP of damage. At the beginning of the game, it requires two stomps or two Hammer strikes to defeat a Goomba (as Goombas only have two HP). However, after Mario learns how to use Action Commands, the plumber only needed one timed attack to defeat one of these bad mushrooms.
Although Goombas were normally fought at the beginning of the game, one Goomba could be fought much later than expected. At one point, Bowser asked Princess Peach what Mario fears most. One of Peach's choices was "A Goomba", and if she picked this, Kammy Koopa would warp a Goomba to Shy Guy's Toy Box. Although Kammy expressed doubt that the Goomba would scare Mario away, she left the fungus in charge of defending a vital Treasure Box anyways. When Mario eventually arrived, the Goomba became very scared, and was quickly defeated by the powerful plumber.
Despite the large number of Goombas loyal to the Koopa Troop, Paper Mario notably features the first community of peaceful Goombas. These Goombas did not wage war against the Mushroom Kingdom; they were a part of it. In fact, this Goomba community was instrumental in defeating King Bowser and liberating the Mushroom Kingdom. It was the family of Goombas (composed of Goompa, Gooma, Goompapa, Goomama, Goombaria, and Goombario) living in peaceful Goomba Village that first discovered Mario's near-lifeless body after the hero's initial defeat at the hands of Bowser. These friendly Goombas nursed Mario back to full strength, and provided the plumber with a Hammer to fight the soldiers of the Koopa Troop. The family also allowed Mario to take Goomnuts from their village; these nuts could be used by Mario to recover his FP. Goombario, a young Goomba and personal admirer of Mario, even joined the hero on his adventure. The young Goomba's Tattle ability was extremely valuable, as he provided hints on how to defeat certain enemies. With Goombario's (among others) help, Mario was able to defeat Bowser and save the Mushroom Kingdom.
Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door
|The Thousand-Year Door Enemy|
|Log||The underling of underlings. No other distinguishing characteristics.|
Mario ran into a number of Goombas during the events of Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. These Goombas lived in the seedy town known as Rogueport. Many of these Goombas were independent thieves, bandits, crooks, cheats, and "cleaners." These mushroom crooks wore green hats, similar to the hat the hero from Hyrule Link wears. Although not the best of company, these Goombas from Rogueport would not attack Mario. However, the Goombas that lived in the Rogueport Sewers or in Petal Meadows were very aggressive. Goombas behaved just like their Paper Mario counterparts, and were not much of a threat, as Mario could perform Action Commands from the beginning of the game. All the Goomba sub-species featured in Paper Mario also return in this game.
Although a large number of either aggressive or simply seedy Goombas appeared in the game, The Thousand-Year Door featured two Goombas that aided Mario in his adventure. The first was Goombella, a female college student from Goomba University. She actually joined Mario on his quest to find the legendary treasure hidden beneath the town of Rogueport (as well as rescue Princess Peach, who had been captured by the ). Her Goomba teacher, Professor Frankly, also helped Mario by interpreting the Magical Map, allowing the hero to find the next Crystal Star and continue his journey.
Mario & Luigi series
Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga
|Superstar Saga Enemy|
|Item Drop||None - 0%|
None - 0%
A group of Goombas joined their master Bowser as he attempted to track down the witch Cackletta during the events of Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga. These Goombas would hold tutorial battles with Mario and Luigi in the Koopa Cruiser, who happened to join the Koopa King in his search for Cackletta (as the witch has stolen Princess Peach's voice). These Goombas would be patrolling the halls of the cruiser, or simply hiding in barrels. The Goombas would engage in battles with the Mario Bros., to get a little training in before their showdown with Cackletta. In battle, a Goomba would approach either Mario or Luigi, somersault towards the plumber, then bite. This attack could be dodged by jumping after the Goomba opened its mouth. To counter the attack, Mario or Luigi would have to jump right when the Goomba's mouth opened. They each have 4 HP so they are not that strong. The Goombas did not see much action after that, as the Koopa Cruiser was shot down by Fawful before Cackletta was engaged in combat.
Although traditional, Koopa Troop-loyal Goombas did not appear throughout the rest of the game, a number of wild sub-species posed problems for the Mario Bros. as they adventured through the Beanbean Kingdom. Goombas from the brothers' past, the Tanoombas, resided just north of Beanbean Castle Town. Another sub-species, known as the Gritty Goomba, lived in the Teehee Valley and Gwarhar Lagoon regions of the Beanbean Kingdom. These powerful Goombas were covered in bandages, and had the ability to conjure sandstorms to distort opponents. The last Beanbean Kingdom sub-species was the Goomdiver. Unlike most Goombas, these creatures can reside underwater as they wear special scuba diving gear. Mario and Luigi encountered Goomdivers in Oho Ocean.
Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time
|Partners in Time Enemy|
|Location(s)||Baby Bowser's Castle / Princess Peach's Castle Dungeon|
|HP||14 (13) / 22|
|POW||25 (22) / 55|
|Defense||20 (22) / 55|
|Speed||10 (12) / 28|
|Experience||3 / 1|
|Coins||3 / 1|
Baby Bowser would later use Goombas as castle guards during the Shroob invasion, as depicted in the game Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time. In this adventure, Goombas were considered the weakest member of the Koopa Troop; they patrolled the halls of Baby Bowser's Castle, attacking any intruder who dared to enter Prince Bowser's fortress. To attack, a Goomba would simply run into an intruder, and could easily be countered with a Jump attack. Goombas were sometimes aided in battle by Boos. Other Goomba sub-species were featured in the game. The Tanooki-Goomba hybrid known as the Tanoomba was a master shape-shifter that lived on the treacherous slopes of Thwomp Mountain. The invading Shroobs also created their own version of the Tanoomba known as the Tashrooba. This dark sub-species served as guards inside Shroob Castle, the conquered (and Shroobified) version of Peach's Castle.
Additionally, during the present-time events of Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time, Princess Peach had a minor Goomba infestation in the dungeon of her castle. Although weak, these Goombas were slightly stronger and attacked faster than their past counterparts from Baby Bowser's Castle. However, they still offered very little experience points and coins when defeated.
Super Princess Peach
During the events of Super Princess Peach, the Princess had to fight a threat from the Koopa Troop and its Goomba minions without the help of the Mario Bros. In the game, Bowser had acquired the Vibe Scepter from Vibe Island, and used it's power to attack Princess Peach's Castle. A lone Goomba led an army of Hammer Bros. in an assault on the castle, using the power of the Vibe Scepter to debilitate the castle guards. The attack was successful, and Mario, Luigi, and multiple castle Toads were captured by the Hammer Bros. Fortunately, Princess Peach and her attendant Toadsworth escaped the assault. The Princess decided to rescue her friends, and was given a magical umbrella named Perry to help her in her quest. Once again, Goombas, among other enemies, attempted to stop Princess Toadstool in her travels around Vibe Island. Although Goombas were not much of a threat, the Princess had a few new and interesting ways to destroy the malicious mushrooms: she could throw the Goomba at another enemy, hit the mushroom with Perry, or have the umbrella eat the Goomba. Paragoombas, as well as a new variety the Red Paragoomba, appeared in the game as well. Princess Peach also battled with a number of emotional varieties of Goomba, all affected by the power of the Vibe Scepter (which was accidentally released across the island by the Goomba who led the attack on Mushroom Castle). These emotional Goombas included the Mad Goomba, the Sad Goomba, the Sad Paragoomba, and the Mad Red Paragoomba.
Unlike Shy Guys, Goombas have not mastered the art of invention for use in battle. One of the most advanced pieces of technology to be employed by the Goombas is the parachute. The parachute allows a large number of Goombas to swarm enemy territory from the sky. Otherwise, Goombas tend to use their natural (albeit usually weak) abilities in battle. However, Goombas have developed a number of tools to counter the jumping ability of the Mario Bros. The Goomba's Shoe allowed the mushrooms to imitate the heroic plumbers, while the spiked hat seen in the Paper Mario series effectively counters any jump attack (unless Mario wears a Spike Shield badge). Gritty Goombas have attached spears to their heads to counter stomp attacks as well.
Goomba Leadership and Allegiances
The Goomba King (also known as Goomboss) is the leader of the Goomba race. However, the Goomba King is merely a lackey of the powerful King Bowser, and as such most Goombas simply work directly for their de facto leader Bowser. Most Goombas are loyal to the Koopa Troop, and form the backbone of its army (although this was not always the case, as Shy Guys and Koopa Troops were deployed much more than Goombas in the early years). Many are independent and have worked for other villains, including the infamous Wario. Some are rogue bandits, living in areas such as Bandit's Way and Rogueport, while others remained loyal to the Mushroom Kingdom, such as the peaceful Goomba family of Goomba Village, and the scholarly students and professors from the Goomba University. Interestingly, many Goombas appear to be wild, acting on monstrous instinct, instead of peaceful (or self-motivated) reason.