From the Super Mario Wiki, the Mario encyclopedia
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The Staff is an item in the SNES and PC releases of Mario's Time Machine. It is made of solid gold and has been used by the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt for generations. As Cleopatra is about to be given the Staff, which lets her be recognized as Egypt's rightful ruler, it is stolen in Alexandria by a time-traveling Bowser. Bowser then places it in his museum full of stolen and time-displaced artifacts, at which point it is taken back by Mario. Mario travels back in time to Alexandria circa 47 BC, Staff in hand, so that it can be returned to its rightful owner. However, as Mario does not know who actually owns it, he asks various people within Alexandria, including Julius Caesar, about the Staff. All of them recognize its importance and tell Mario to bring it to Cleopatra. Eventually, Mario absolutely confirms its owner and brings it to Cleopatra, firmly crowning her as Egypt's queen.