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1-UP Studio (formerly known as Brownie Brown) is a Japanese video game developer and wholly owned subsidiary of Nintendo based in Tokyo, which was founded by a majority of ex-Square Enix staff including graphic designer Shinichi Kameoka that left the company due to creative differences. The company started off primarily developing Japanese role-playing games for handheld systems, but since the early 2010s, they have been involved in the production of some Super Mario series titles.
Part of Super Mario 3D Land's development was outsourced to 1-UP Studio as to have the game released in time for the 2011 Holiday season. Director Koichi Hayashida closely supervised the team to ensure they would understand Nintendo's game design philosophy and work in harmony with the main development team. The team was contracted again for Super Mario 3D World and later for Captain Toad: Treasure Tracker and Super Mario Odyssey.