Yoshis (referred to as Yoshisaurs in the Super Mario World cartoon, and alternatively pluralized "Yoshies" in the original Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island) are a sapient species of omnivorous dinosaur that first appeared in Super Mario World. They later starred in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island, Yoshi's Story, Yoshi Touch & Go, Yoshi's Island DS, Yoshi's New Island, Yoshi's Woolly World and Yoshi's Crafted World. The name is derived from the Japanese interjection "yoshi" (よし), meaning "great". The most well-known Yoshi is simply named Yoshi, and is an ally of Mario, often aiding Mario out or being a protagonist of his own adventures.
Yoshis are characterized primarily by their production and use of eggs as offensive tools. Yoshis can spontaneously lay hollow eggs after eating other animals or fruit, and then use them as projectile weaponry; other eggs have been shown to hatch into items, and some eggs hatch into baby Yoshis. In the Super Smash Bros. series, Yoshi is able to turn himself into an egg to either protect himself or to roll into others as an attack. Yoshis come in a variety of colors, although green is the most common. Yoshis are most closely associated with Yoshi's Island, however they are a widespread species, found on a number of islands, such as Lavalava Island and Isle Delfino, as well as the continental Mushroom Kingdom and the neighboring Beanbean Kingdom.
Super Mario series
Super Mario World
Yoshis were first introduced in Super Mario World. When Bowser invaded Dinosaur Land, he and the Koopalings kidnapped a number of Yoshis who then had to be rescued by Mario and Luigi. This is also how the brothers meet Yoshi, whom they befriend very early in the game.
Other Green Yoshis, as well as Red, Yellow, and Blue Yoshis can be found in the Star World. Eating Koopa shells gives Yoshis different abilities: after eating a Red Shell, the Yoshi would spit out a fireball, while Yellow Shells would make it heavy enough to create sand clouds each time it lands a jump, and Blue Shells cause the Yoshi to grow wings and fly. Red, Yellow and Blue Yoshis experience the effect of the corresponding shell color regardless of the color of the shell they hold in their mouths. Flashing Shells grant all three special effects, while green shells yield no extra abilities, and could merely be spat out as a ricocheting projectile. If the Yoshi holds the shell in its mouth for too long, it swallows it. Yoshis can also eat other enemies as well as berries that grow on bushes in certain areas; eating ten berries causes the Yoshi to lay an egg that hatches into a Super Mushroom.
If the Yoshi gets hurt by an enemy, it will drop Mario and run around in a panic until Mario jumps back on its saddle.
Super Mario Sunshine
Yoshis play a major role in Super Mario Sunshine, acting as transportation for Mario proving themselves to be the key to obtaining several Shine Sprites. To get a Yoshi, Mario must first find a Yoshi Egg and give it the specific fruit it wants. Then the Yoshi will hatch and Mario can ride him. Depending on the fruit it has eaten, the Yoshi will be one of three colors: orange (if fed a papaya or a pineapple), pink (if fed bananas or a coconut), or purple (if fed a durian or pepper). Even after hatching, a Yoshi can still change colors by eating fruits of a different type. Each color will give a Yoshi the ability to spit a juice of the same color (this ability replaces the function of F.L.U.D.D.) that affects enemies by turning them into various types of platforms. The orange juice turns enemies into orange stationary platforms, the pink juice turns them into pink ascending platforms, and the purple juice turns them into purple forward-moving platforms. All three types of platforms disappear after a short amount of time. Unlike F.L.U.D.D., Yoshis can also destroy Orange Juice Generators. Yoshis are unlocked by beating Episode 4 of Pinna Park, afterwards Shadow Mario will appear in Delfino Plaza carrying a Yoshi Egg.
A Yoshi's juice meter depletes as the Yoshi sprays it, and will drain over time as well; the juice meter can be fully replenished by having it eat any fruit, changing the Yoshi's color and the juice's properties depending on the fruit. If a Yoshi runs out of juice, it will turn green and begin to flicker for a few seconds before vanishing altogether; during this time, it can only spit water instead of juice. Landing in sufficiently deep water makes the Yoshi disappear immediately, as they cannot swim in this game.
New Super Mario Bros.
Yoshi, along with a Red, a Yellow and a Blue Yoshi, appeared in some of the minigames in New Super Mario Bros.
New Super Mario Bros. Wii
Yellow, Light Blue, and Pink Yoshis appear alongside the Green Yoshi in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, where they helped the Mario Bros. save Princess Peach from Bowser. Red and Blue Yoshis were originally going to appear in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, but they were replaced by the Pink and Light Blue Yoshis in the final game.
In this game, the Yoshis can Flutter Jump and stomp enemies that Mario and the others could not normally defeat with jumps. Like in Super Mario World, their main ability is eating enemies, but they cannot swallow shelled enemies at all, and the shells do not give the Yoshis any special abilities. Instead, swallowing a Venus Fire Trap gives the Yoshi the ability to spit a fireball afterwards, and they can also spit fireballs ice balls and hammers right back at the enemies that threw them. Eating five berries and leaf-covered Pokeys causes Yoshis to lay eggs that hatch into useful items for the Mario Bros. and the Toads. When harmed, the Yoshi throws off its rider and runs around in a panic until someone jumps back on its saddle. Yoshis first appear in World 1-3.
New Super Mario Bros. U
In New Super Mario Bros. U, Yoshis appear in a green color only, and they behave identically to New Super Mario Bros. Wii. Up to four Green Yoshis can appear in multiplayer. Baby Yoshis also appear on the world map and certain levels and have different colors with special abilities. Bubble Baby Yoshis are blue and spit out bubbles that trap enemies when the player shakes their Wii Remote. Balloon Baby Yoshi is a magenta color and inflates like a balloon when the Wii Remote is shaken. Glowing Baby Yoshis are yellow in color, and can illuminate the dark and stun enemies when the Wii Remote is shaken. Baby Yoshis are also vital in a new Toad House minigame. A new meter appears when Yoshi eats fruits, which shows how many fruits Yoshi has eaten, effectively replacing the number system. Yoshis also appear in New Super Luigi U with the same role and purpose.
Super Mario Maker / Super Mario Maker for Nintendo 3DS / Super Mario Maker 2
Yoshis return in Super Mario Maker and Super Mario Maker for Nintendo 3DS, appearing in both the Super Mario World and New Super Mario Bros. U styles, where they retain their functions in each style. They are replaced by the Goomba's Shoe in the Super Mario Bros. and Super Mario Bros. 3 styles. In addition, Yoshi (and yarn forms) appears as an unlockable Mystery Mushroom costume in the original game, which can be unlocked either at random upon completion of the 100-Mario Challenge, or by scanning a compatible Yoshi amiibo. The standard Yoshi costume replaces the usual Super Mario Bros. sound effects with sounds from Super Mario World while Yarn Yoshis use sound effects from Yoshi's Woolly World.
Super Mario Maker 2
Yoshis appear in Super Mario Maker 2 with the same appearance and functionality as in Super Mario Maker. Red Yoshis are available as a course element created by applying the Super Mushroom modifier to Yoshi's Egg to create Big Red Yoshi's Egg. Rather then using their tongue, they spit fireballs, and if Mario is Fire Mario, Red Yoshi will spit three fireballs at once like in Super Mario World.
Super Mario Adventures
In Nintendo Power's Super Mario Adventures comics, which is loosely based on the Super Mario World video game, Bowser kidnaps various Yoshis from the Yoshi Village and their leader, Yoshi himself, has to team up with Mario and Luigi to save them and Princess Peach. Eventually they are able to free the Yoshis and have them stampede the wedding between Bowser and the brainwashed Peach, rescuing the princess. Bowser tries to hide in the giant wedding cake, but the Yoshis eat it, forcing him to accept defeat and leave Dinosaur Land.
Their language was shown to consist of nothing but the word "Yoshi" here, making Yoshis unintelligible to Mario and Luigi.
Yoshi appeared in various issues of the Nintendo-based German Club Nintendo comics. Other Yoshis also appeared in a few issues:
In the first game of the Yoshi franchise, Mario has to arrange egg halves and enemies to produce Small, Tall, Winged, and Star Yoshis. To get a Small Yoshi, Mario must combine two halves of a Yoshi egg. To get a Tall Yoshi, Mario must have one to four enemies in between the two halves of an egg. To get a Winged Yoshi, Mario must have five or six enemies in between the two halves of an egg. To get a Star Yoshi, Mario must have seven enemies in between the two halves of an egg. If a Small Yoshi hatches, 50 points are awarded. If a Tall Yoshi hatches, 100-250 points are awarded. If a Winged Yoshi hatches, 300-350 points are awarded. If a Star Yoshi hatches, 500 points are awarded.
Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island / Yoshi's Island: Super Mario Advance 3
Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island is set long before Super Mario World and tells the story of Mario and Luigi's first days of life. Baby Bowser's caretaker Kamek had predicted that the two babies born that morning spelled disaster for the Koopas and attempted to kidnap them before the Stork could deliver them to their parents. However, he only manages to snag Baby Luigi, while Baby Mario falls to Yoshi's Island and lands unscathed on Yoshi's back.
The infant causes some brief panic amongst the Yoshi community, until Yoshi takes charge and decides to help reunite Mario and Luigi and send them to their parents. The other Yoshis agree to help him transport Baby Mario across Yoshi's Island to Bowser's Castle through use of a relay system. Each Yoshi carries the baby for one level in each world, before passing him on to the next Yoshi in line. To defend him against Kamek's forces and the hostile wildlife of the island, the Yoshis eat enemies, turning them into eggs which they can then throw at other enemies and obstacles. The Yoshis can also transform themselves into various vehicles through the use of morph bubbles, which helps them progress through the island. Eventually, Yoshi defeats Baby Bowser and forces Kamek to retreat, allowing him to rescue Baby Luigi and the Stork. The Yoshis then send them on their way to Mario and Luigi's parents.
In Yoshi's Story, Baby Bowser steals the Super Happy Tree, the source of the island's happiness, and transforms it into a storybook. He curses the Yoshis, making them unable to stop him. However, the curse does not affect six baby Yoshis in their eggs. When they hatch, the six Baby Yoshis go to find the Super Happy Tree to refill the island with happiness.
The Yoshis travel across the island, eating fruits to boost their own happiness levels. As their collective happiness increases, more and more worlds become available to the Yoshis. Eventually, the Baby Yoshis reach Baby Bowser's Castle where they defeat Baby Bowser and reclaim the Super Happy Tree.
In Yoshi Topsy-Turvy (also known as Yoshi's Universal Gravitation) Yoshi's Island has once again been turned into a storybook, but this time, a spirit named Hongo is responsible. He did this to contain Bowser's trouble-making, but agrees that if Yoshi can subdue Bowser, he will restore the island.
Yoshi Touch & Go
In Yoshi Touch & Go, the Yoshis have to transport Baby Mario to the Stork after Kamek kidnaps Baby Luigi and causes the bird to drop Baby Mario. The color of the Yoshi varies depending on how many coins the player collects while guiding Baby Mario down to the ground.
Yoshi's Island DS
In Yoshi's Island DS, Bowser and Kamek travel back in time to kidnap seven star children in order to use the energy within their bodies to let Bowser take over the world. Since they do not know the identity of the children, they endeavor to kidnap every single infant in the Mushroom World, but one way or another, their quarry escapes their clutches. Only one child, a baby Yoshi, is not involved at all (although it is possible that the baby is Yoshi himself, who is now grown up); Baby Luigi is successfully captured, but manages to avoid detection for the duration of his imprisonment, and all the other children escape or are cast out by the villains, and help the Yoshis save the rest of the babies.
In the final battle, Yoshi and three others fight Bowser, carrying babies Mario, Peach, DK and Wario, as Baby Bowser turned traitor when they reached Bowser's Castle. After their defeat, the Koopas return to the future and the babies are brought home by the Storks.
Yoshi's New Island
Yoshi's New Island takes place directly after Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island, revealing that the Stork delivered the babies to the wrong house in the previous game. Kamek then attacks and kidnaps Baby Luigi and the Stork, but Baby Mario falls onto Egg Island, another home of the Yoshis. Baby Bowser has taken over the island. Baby Mario is then found by the Yoshis, who help reunite him with his brother and save the island. During the final boss fight, after Baby Bowser is defeated, adult Bowser travels back in time and must be defeated so that Yoshi can rescue Baby Luigi and the Stork.
Gameplay is similar to the original Yoshi's Island, with some new features. Yoshi can now eat Mega Guys and Metal Guys to lay Mega Eggdozers and Metal Eggdozers, respectively. The latter prevents Yoshi from Flutter Jumping, but allows him to go undersea. New vehicle transformations also exist, such as Hot-Air Balloon Yoshi, Bobsled Yoshi, and Mine-Cart Yoshi. The Yoshi Star is also a new item that transforms Yoshi into Super Yoshi. Gold Yoshi Stars allow him to run on walls, while Red Yoshi Stars allow Yoshi to fly horizontally like a rocket.
Yoshi's Woolly World / Poochy & Yoshi's Woolly World
In Yoshi's Woolly World and Poochy & Yoshi's Woolly World, Kamek turns many Yoshis into yarn balls, known as Wonder Wools while other Yoshis (Yoshi himself and Red Yoshi) hide. The two set out to restore the Craft Island to its former appearance. The gameplay is mostly the same as in the other Yoshi games, though instead of laying eggs, Yoshi will lay Yarn Balls, which act like Yoshi eggs.
Yoshi's Crafted World
In Yoshi's Crafted World, the Yoshis work together to gather the pieces of a shattered Sundream Stone after they destroyed it in a fight with Kamek and Baby Bowser. The Yoshis here are similar in terms of abilities to the ones in Yoshi's Woolly World, though they can also flip between 2D and 3D perspectives as well as throw eggs at items in the background and foreground.
Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars
In Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars Mario and his partners visit Yo'ster Isle, where Yoshis race each other for sport in a competition known as the Mushroom Derby. Unfortunately, the last winner of the derby was an arrogant Yoshi named Boshi who proceeded to name himself leader of Yo'ster Isle and suspend the races. Instead, only one-on-one races between himself and slower Yoshis were allowed, with Yoshi Cookies as the prize. When Mario arrives, he helps Yoshi defeat Boshi in a race, prompting the people to try and appoint Yoshi as their new leader. Yoshi declines the offer, however, and instead has the Mushroom Derby re-opened to everyone, with no Yoshi in charge.
During the game, Yoshi also serves as a translator between Mario and the Yoshis, who speak their own language.
Super Smash Bros. series
Yoshi appears as a playable character in all the Super Smash Bros. series titles, in which he has various alternate colors, in addition to the basic Green: Red, Blue, Yellow, Pink, Light-Blue, Purple, and Black. Some stages and events involve fighting multiple Yoshis. In Super Smash Bros., only four of the eight Yoshi colors are playable; Green, Red, Light-Blue, and Yellow. The first six Yoshi colors are used in the computer-controlled Yoshi team battled during the 1-Player mode, and they all become playable in Super Smash Bros. Melee and onward. Yoshis also make a small appearance in the opening of Super Smash Bros. Melee during a stampede, and as stickers in Super Smash Bros. Brawl. Purple Yoshi and Black Yoshi become playable in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U; in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, Yoshi has a costume based off his appearance in Yoshi's Crafted World, replacing the Black Yoshi costume. Yoshis also appear during Yoshi's Final Smash in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, Stampede!, which is based on the Super Smash Bros. Melee opening.
Paper Mario series
Mario and his partners visit Yoshi's Village on Lavalava Island during the events of Paper Mario. They were there looking for a Star Spirit that Bowser had trapped in a playing card and given to a minion to guard within the island's volcano, but they find they cannot get into the mountain on their own. The Yoshi Village Leader says he will help Mario and the others if they help round up five missing Yoshi Kids. With the help of their Cheep Cheep babysitter, Sushie, Mario and co. soon find the young Yoshis and can continue on with their quest.
Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door
When Mario and his current set of partners visit Glitzville in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, they soon find themselves with custody of a Yoshi egg, after its initial owner, a hotdog vendor, decided against cooking and serving it once he realized it could move on its own accord. For a while, the egg follows Mario and his partners. Then, after the match with the Armored Harriers, Mario returns to find that the egg had hatched into a baby Yoshi, the color of whom varies depending on how much time had passed between Mario's acquisition of the egg and its hatching. Mario names the Yoshi, who then travels with him and the other partners for the remainder of the game, before becoming a fighter in the Glitz Pit after the quest is over.
Paper Mario: Color Splash
For the first time in the Mario series, Yoshis appear as enemies in Paper Mario: Color Splash. They are found in The Emerald Circus and will randomly appear out of a curtain to try to eat Mario. Mario has to block their tongues, or they will waste his next card. The Yoshi will then run back into the curtain; they cannot be defeated. Yoshi also appears in the Dark Bloo Inn. If Mario tries to mount him, he runs off to The Emerald Circus, where Mario can talk to him once the Yoshis escape from their cage.
Mario & Luigi series
Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga / Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga + Bowser's Minions
This game shows that Yoshis also live in the Beanbean Kingdom. They are found at Yoshi Theater and Mario and Luigi must find Bean Fruit for seven hungry Yoshis to earn Neon Eggs and ultimately obtain a Beanstar piece. They can be seen in the credits in Yoshi Theater watching the events of the game at the conclusion of the end credits; the remake instead shows a similar scene during a pre-intro cutscene.
Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time
In Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time, the invading aliens known as the Shroobs deposit what appears to be a giant Yoshi Egg on Yoshi's Island. It swiftly becomes a tourist attraction, but eventually hatches into a monster known as Yoob, which proceeds to eat every Yoshi it can catch. A factory in its belly then encases the eaten Yoshis in Yoob Eggs, so that they will also hatch as monsters and help wreak havoc on the world. Fortunately, the plan is foiled by Yoshi, who is aided by Baby Mario, Baby Luigi, and the adult Mario and Luigi, who had both traveled back in time to save Peach and stop the aliens. Yoshi discovers a way to escape through Yoob's digestive tract and the four Mario Bros. liberate the captured and imprisoned Yoshis to help him. They also defeat the guardian of the factory, Sunnycide, and once the Yoshis escape and the factory is destroyed, Yoob falls asleep.
Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story / Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story + Bowser Jr's Journey
This is the only game in the Mario & Luigi series that does not feature Yoshis. Yoshi noises can be found in audio files within the code, but they are unused. It is unknown if Yoshis themselves were going to appear in the game or its remake or it was left over from Partners in Time (as the game's engine was based off this game's).
Also, the Fawful Guy and its dark variant have an attack where a roar very similar to Yoob's can be heard; a long tongue then snags them, turns them into an egg and throws the egg at their target using a Yoshi's Island-style targeting cursor.
Mario & Luigi: Dream Team
Yoshis appear in Mario & Luigi: Dream Team as one of the many species invited to Pi'illo Island. Many Yoshis can be seen in various places such as Pi'illo Castle, Mushrise Park and Wakeport, coming in Green, Red, and Yellow.
Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam
In Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, Yoshis act as minor NPCs throughout the game and can be found in the various Toads Villages throughout the Mushroom Kingdom. One Yoshi appears in the Gloomy Woods Village, and has to be beaten in a footrace to win the melon he has so it can be given to Wiggler. Later on, this Yoshi's brother appears in Mount Brrr, and challenges the trio to a more difficult race, giving them the Speed Gloves as a prize if they win.
Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games
In Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games, Yoshis serve as the main objective in Dream Equestrian, where players must race to the finish line, carrying a wagon full of seven color Yoshi eggs. The eggs will hatch into Yoshis upon reaching the goal.
Mario Tennis series
Mario Tennis Open
Most of the colored Yoshis (excluding the Purple, Orange, and Brown varieties) make an appearance in Mario Tennis Open as downloadable QR characters. The different colors, and their playing types, are listed below.
Mario Tennis Aces
Colored Yoshis return as an alternate colors for Yoshi in Mario Tennis Aces, in the October 2018 update. Unlike in Mario Tennis Open, Yoshis have the same green tennis racket as Yoshi in this game.
Mario Kart 8 / Mario Kart 8 Deluxe
In Mario Kart 8, Yoshis can be seen as spectators in Sweet Sweet Canyon, Mount Wario, GBA Mario Circuit, SNES Donut Plains 3 and N64 Yoshi Valley. They also spectate in the DLC courses Excitebike Arena, GCN Yoshi Circuit, GCN Baby Park and Super Bell Subway. Occasionally, some of these Yoshis will hum Totaka's Song.
The Light-blue, Black, Red, Yellow, White, Blue, Pink and Orange color variants of Yoshi are automatically unlocked when both downloadable content packs are purchased, along with the eight color variants of Shy Guy. Red Yoshi is the Staff Ghost for GCN Yoshi Circuit, and Orange Yoshi appears as the Staff Ghost for the DLC course GBA Cheese Land.
Yoshis return in Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, additionally appearing as spectators in the additional battle courses SNES Battle Course 1, Sweet Sweet Kingdom and 3DS Wuhu Town. The eight color variants of Yoshi are now included within the base game.
Super Mario Run
Colored Yoshis (along with Yoshi) appear in Super Mario Run's second update as playable characters along with Mario, Luigi, Peach, Toad, and Toadette. They have the special ability of obtaining more Toads of their own color in Toad Rally. Blue Yoshi is the only Yoshi available to unlock if players don't have the full version of this game.
Other appearances and references
The character Yoshi appears in many Mario games, including Yoshi's Safari, Super Mario 64, Super Mario Galaxy 2, and all the Mario Party, Mario Kart and Mario sports games. Other Yoshis have occasionally appeared in these games, including a pair in Mario Party, and Yoshis in Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games. Yoshi's Rolling Egg Return Defensive Power Shot in Mario Power Tennis also has him changing colors, although it it still the same character.
In the Super Mario All-Stars and Super Mario Advance 4 adaptations of Super Mario Bros. 3, the king of the Pipe Maze is transformed into a Green Yoshi by Ludwig von Koopa (whereas in the NES version of the game, predating Yoshis, the king was transformed into a Piranha Plant).
In Super Mario Chess, Yoshis appear as knights on Mario's team.
In addition, many Yoshi-themed Mario Kart racecourses have appeared: Mario Kart 64 has Yoshi Valley, Mario Kart: Super Circuit has Yoshi Desert, Mario Kart: Double Dash!! has Yoshi Circuit, Mario Kart DS has Yoshi Falls and reuses the GameCube course Yoshi Circuit, Mario Kart Arcade GP 2 has a two-course Yoshi stage, and while it doesn't introduce a new course, Mario Kart Wii reuses Yoshi Falls from the DS title. Yoshis also spectate a few courses in Mario Kart 8 and Mario Kart 8 Deluxe. Yoshi Valley from Mario Kart 64 and Yoshi Circuit from Mario Kart: Double Dash!! also reappear as retro courses in these two games.
Although Yoshis do not appear in Super Paper Mario, a stone statue of one appears in Chapter 5: Land of the Cragnons. There is also a Sammer Guy called "Belly of the Yoshi", which is a reference to how Yoshis can eat as much food as they want without getting full. Yoshis were also referenced in Super Mario Galaxy by a planet shaped like a Yoshi Egg in the Good Egg Galaxy and by a planet shaped like a Yoshi head in the Space Junk Galaxy. Similarly, in Paper Mario: Sticker Star, there is a sphinx in World 2-2 called the Yoshi Sphinx, whose head is shaped exactly like a Yoshi's head.
In Fortune Street, many Yoshis can be seen in the background on the Yoshi's Island board. A majority of the Dragon Quest characters refer to them as "dragons."
Yoshis were initially portrayed with long necks and small hands with three digits, but hands with four digits appeared first in the Super Mario World television series from DIC, then in the Japanese commercial of Mario Paint, and in artwork of Super Mario Kart; this had become a common design choice by the end of the 1990s. The design of Yoshis has since changed to make them more anthropogenic, with upright postures, shorter necks and grasping, human-like, four-digit hands. Even though Yoshis are usually portrayed as having no visible teeth and swallowing their enemies without chewing them after having grabbed them with their long red tongue, they have been shown to have a full set of upper and lower teeth since the Super Mario Picture Books published by Shogakukan and written in collaboration with Nintendo, in particular: Super Mario Story Quiz Picture Book 2: Mario's Sports Day, and Super Mario Chie Asobi Ehon ④ Larry No Itazura (Super Mario Wisdom Games Picture Book ④ Larry's Mischief), with the new design retaining them as seen in artwork for Yoshi's Story. Yoshis were originally conceived of as a type of Koopa, with the saddles on their backs being their shells. Even in the bio of Yoshi on Nintendo's Japanese site, the saddle is considered to be a shell. Although most Yoshis have never been seen without their shoes, the appearance of Boshi in Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars confirms that Yoshis have three toes on each foot, and also have white pads on the bottom of their feet, as shown in Super Mario Story Quiz Picture Book 5: Mario's Amusement Park (「スーパーマリオおはなしクイズえほん 5 マリオの ゆうえんち」). Early Yoshi sprites for Super Mario World showed babies that were blob-like in shape and adults with mouths resembling those of the current Baby Yoshis.
A Yoshi's physical appearance changes depending how old they are. For example, in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, the Yoshi appears much smaller compared to other Yoshis. He also has hair, while most other Yoshis do not, though this is most likely to differentiate the character as playable. Newly-hatched Baby Yoshis featured in Super Mario World (among other games) are both smaller and also proportioned differently than the adults, with short, stubby bodies lacking in saddles, almost no neck, and a slightly down-curved snout. After eating enough enemies, food or Power-Ups, these baby Yoshis will undergo a rapid growth spurt and look like adults from that point onward.
Yoshis come in a variety of colors. In Super Mario Sunshine, they can change skin color by eating different fruit, while their colors are determined by hatching time in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. Shoe color changes along with skin color: a Green Yoshi has red shoes, a Red Yoshi has blue shoes, etc. This shoe color denomination was not standardized until Yoshi's Story.
In Super Mario World, Yoshis had abilities depending on their color and the Koopa Shells they swallowed. If a Blue Yoshi licked up a Koopa Shell, it could temporarily grow wings until it was swallowed or spit out. If a Red Yoshi licked up a Koopa Shell, it could spit it back out as a trio of fireballs. If a Yellow Yoshi licked up a shell, it could create sand clouds for as long as it held the shell in its mouth. Shells of the corresponding colors would also cause those effects for a Yoshi of any color.
The following is all the known colors of Yoshis and the first appearance of said color of Yoshi:
Yoshis are known for their long tongues that cling to most enemies, allowing a Yoshi to swallow them whole. They can swallow whatever they eat and turn it into an egg. The eggs can then be used as projectile weapons to defeat other enemies and bosses, while other eggs hatch into useful items like 1-Up Mushrooms. Yoshis also presumably have strong digestive systems, which digest live enemies very quickly, although in Super Mario World it would take a few minutes for a Yoshi to be able to swallow a Koopa Shell.
Yoshis have large snouts which they can use to sniff out fruit and other secrets that are buried underground, although this ability is seen only in Yoshi's Story.
Most games show that Yoshis can swim, although how well they swim varies. In Super Mario World, they can swim and dive, although in Yoshi's Island DS, they cannot dive without the Submarine powerup. Yoshi also cannot dive in Super Mario Galaxy 2, although he can swim. In Super Mario Sunshine, Yoshis that live on or around Isle Delfino turn green and disappear if they touch water.
As discussed earlier, in Super Mario World, when carrying a yellow Koopa Shell in their mouths (or any shell if the Yoshi itself is yellow), the Yoshi becomes heavy and shakes the ground each time it lands after a jump or fall. Yoshis were also one of the first creatures shown performing proper Ground Pound attacks - a move in which the performer jumps into the air, flips and then slams into the ground. Yoshis first performed the move in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. Yoshi uses "Ground Pound" in the Super Smash Bros. series as a special attack. Bowser was shown doing the equivalent of a Ground Pound in Super Mario Bros. 3 (before the debut of Yoshis), and in games since then. Other characters have also been shown Ground Pounding, including Mario himself in titles such as Super Mario 64, Super Mario Sunshine, and various entries in the Mario Party franchise.
Despite being one of the central species in the Mario franchise, very little information has been provided on how Yoshis reproduce.
The in-game Japanese text of Yoshi's Trophy in Super Smash Bros. Melee states that Yoshis reproduce asexually, meaning that they reproduce without a mate and are neither male nor female. This is supported by the Chef minigame in Game & Watch Gallery 2 and Game & Watch Gallery 4; after being fed long enough, the Yoshi produces an egg that eventually hatches into another Yoshi. The baby then takes its parent's place and proceeds to eat enough food to turn into an adult, eventually producing an egg of its own, which then continues the cycle.
Other sources have contradicted this. At least one of the Yoshis in Paper Mario refers to his "son," and in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, the Yoshi who sometimes appears on-board the Excess Express expresses his hatred of business trips due to them keeping him away from his "lovely wife". The original Mario Party also features a pair of Yoshis which appear to be one male and one female, although the exact nature of their relationship was not revealed. Additionally, while Japanese language rarely involves gender-specific pronouns, Yoshi is consistently referred to with masculine pronouns in translation, yet laying eggs is one of his trademarks. This apparent contradiction was addressed in Super Smash Bros. Brawl, where Solid Snake assumes that Yoshi is a female because of his egg-laying abilities, only to be corrected by Otacon (both of whom use "it" rather than "he" or "she" while they're talking about Yoshi). It is addressed again in Super Smash Bros. for Wii U, where Viridi remarks that there is nothing natural about a male who lays eggs while Palutena asserts that all living beings have both male and female elements.
Though omnivorous, Yoshis favor fruit, and in Yoshi's Story, they become happy when eating fruit of their own color. Melons are their favorite fruit regardless of color. Some Yoshis, such as Black and White Yoshis, can digest Peppers without hurting themselves. However, in Super Mario Galaxy 2, the playable Green Yoshi can eat the Dash Pepper, turning him red-orange, and causing him to run very fast for a short amount of time. All Yoshis can eat enemies of various kinds, from large Koopa Troopas to plants. Also, if they eat a Bean Fruit, then they will lay a rare Neon Egg, the color of which depends on the Yoshi's own color.
Yoshis are capable of speaking human languages, as demonstrated by Yoshi in Super Mario World, Super Mario 64, and Tetris Attack, as well as other Yoshis in games like Yoshi's Story, Paper Mario, Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, Super Mario Galaxy 2 (featuring Yoshi) and others. However, it seems that Yoshis speaking in human language is rare, as Yoshi must translate for Mario in Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars and Mario Super Sluggers.
In older games (and more recent ones such as New Super Mario Bros. Wii), Yoshi and his friends are "voiced" by the sound two pitch-bended orchestra hits (in Super Mario World only Yoshi spoke with a text bubble, though this was changed in the Super Mario Advance 2 version). In Yoshi's Story, the Yoshis are voiced by Nintendo musician Kazumi Totaka, who mutters the word "Yoshi" as well as a series of intelligible and unintelligible words, such as "gong" and "hup". His voice is sped up to create the babylike, high-pitched voices of the Yoshis.
Oddly, in the Mario & Luigi series, Yoshi still speaks with Super Mario RPG-style parentheses.
The Super Mario Adventures comic joked that Yoshis could only say the word "Yoshi".
Although Baby Yoshis retain their squeaky voices in New Super Mario Bros. U and New Super Luigi U, their speech bubbles once again consist of the word "Yoshi", which is translated for the player.
Profiles and statistics
Super Smash Bros. Brawl sticker
Team Player Yoshis
New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe
Yoshi's Crafted World