List of implied locations
The list of implied locations is a list of places, kingdoms, and zones that have not physically appeared up in any form of media to this point in time. Regardless of their lack of appearance, the implied locations have been mentioned at least once throughout the Mario series.
Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia. When Luigi traveled to Nairobi during the events of Mario is Missing!, not knowing where he is, a business woman in the city give him a hint by saying he is "in the largest city between Addis Ababa and Zanzibar."
Alaska is one of the fifty states of the United States of America. However, it is a fair distance from the rest of the country, as it borders the northwestern end of Canada. During the events of "Marianne and Luigeena", Marianne tells Luigi that Luigeena went to look for him and Mario, but had yet to return, and decided to go look for her sister. As Marianne left, Luigi suggests for her to check out Alaska, implying that he wants her to leave for a long time.
The Alps are a great mountain range in Europe. They are mentioned in the game Mario is Missing! by a citizen of Rome, saying that if Luigi brought Italian shoes from home, they could "climb the Alps for a peek of Rome."
The Apple Mountain is an implied location mentioned by Dorguy the First during a question, in Super Paper Mario. It is said to have many apple trees, hence its name. Possibly, the mountain was created just to the question.
The Banishment Zone is a zone mentioned in promotional materials for The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3, where Bowser is sent before the events of the cartoon and after The Super Mario Bros. Super Show! However, Bowser escapes from the Banishment Zone and attacks the Mushroom Kingdom again, this time with his Koopalings. It is unknown how Mario, Luigi, Princess Toadstool and Toad sent Bowser to the Banishment Zone, where the zone is located and what it looks like as it is only ever mentioned in passing.
Broadshroom is a place mentioned by Eve during Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. She will speak of it when Mario accepts her "Tell that person..." trouble at the Trouble Center. Little is revealed about Broadshroom, except that many famous plays are performed there, of which Eve herself landed a lead role in one. It is seemingly based off of Broadway in New York City, implying that it is probably a street in a large, unnamed city somewhere on Mushroom World.
In "Rowdy Roddy's Rotten Pipes", Luigi tries to convince Rowdy Roddy Piper that his reformatted bagpipes are actually a vacuum cleaner manufactured by the ficticious "McBronx Vacuum Company", which he claims is from Scotland.
Brooklyn Public Library
The Brooklyn Public Library is a large library in Brooklyn that Mario and Luigi used to visit when they lived there. When Mario and his friends venture into King Koopa's giant-sized castle during "Mario and the Beanstalk", Luigi jokingly notes that it is larger than the Brooklyn Public Library.
In "Wild Thing", Mario and Luigi have each borrowed a book from the library, which they intend to read over the weekend.
California is one of the fifty states of the United States of America, well-known for its warm climate. The cities of Hollywood and San Francisco are located there. Marilyn's Uncle Troy is known to live somewhere in California.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. When Luigi travels to Sydney during the events of Mario is Missing!, he meets a business woman who tells him even though Sydney is Australia's oldest and largest city, Canberra is its capital.
Circuit Break Island
Circuit Break Island is an island Luigi visits to retrieve the third Marvelous Compass piece on his journey to rescue Princess Eclair. The residents of the island have kart races almost everyday, and the winner becomes king or queen of the island for twenty-four hours. The karts race at high speeds are equipped with missile launchers. It has never been seen, however Luigi mentions it in-between chapters during the events of Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. Some information Luigi explains may be false, because Luigi's Party sometimes say that Luigi's story is false (or he made stuff up to make himself and the story seem more famous and better, respectively).
The only known kart is The Big Green 01.
The cloud temple is an implied location mentioned by Puffing Fist in Super Paper Mario. When Mario beats him, he says he must go to the cloud temple to train. It is a possible reference to the Overthere, as it is in the clouds and it has many temples.
Count Bleck's World
Count Bleck's World or Blumiere's World is a world that Count Bleck says he is going to create after destroying all worlds in Super Paper Mario, and live there with his minions, Mimi, Nastasia, O'Chunks and Dimentio happily but as it turns out near the end, he doesn't mean it and he is actually going to destroy all worlds and not leave a single one, not even his own.
Dimentio says Count Bleck lied about the World and tries to convince Mario to join him to build perfect worlds, but Tippi alerts him he is lying, causing Dimentio to fight Mario.
At the end of the game, Lord Blumiere and Lady Timpani (Count Bleck and Tippi's true forms) go to some other world where they presumably live happily ever after. After Mario and company all return to Flipside, Nastasia is sad Count left and just can't stop crying.
O'Chunks and Mimi tell her that Count Bleck must be alive and in peace. They say that they will even build the world that Count Bleck wanted so much — a world with love and not war.
Dry Dry Kingdom
The Dry Dry Kingdom is an ancient civilization that existed an unknown time ago in the Dry Dry Desert; Dry Dry Kingdom is mentioned in Paper Mario by a Dryite living in Dry Dry Outpost, as well as by other characters, though not by name.
The Dry Dry Kingdom is evidently a prosperous society ruled by a Nomadimouse named King Mousta; the subjects of King Mousta rose up against him and rebelled against his rule, wishing to have a society akin to anarchy, they exiling him from the Dry Dry Kingdom. King Mousta eventually struck back against his traitorous followers sometime after his impeachment, defeating them with those still loyal to him, thieves and bandits who would later go on to create the town of Dry Dry Outpost.
This war waged by the Dry Dry Kingdom's inhabitants and King Mousta may have caused the destruction of the Dry Dry Kingdom, or at least contributed to it. Currently, the only remains of the Dry Dry Kingdom's existence are the Dry Dry Ruins, which are guarded by Moustafa, a possible descendant of King Mousta or his second-in-command, a thief boss who is charged with guarding the ruins.
Ethiopia is a country in Africa. It is mentioned in the game Mario is Missing! as one of the three countries - besides Kenya and Tanzania - to be "eagerly excavated" in order to solve the mystery where human beings first lived.
The Flora Kingdom is an unseen part in Super Paper Mario. Not much is known about it, but Floro Sapiens are the residents of it and King Croacus IV is the current king of the kingdom. Though it is not confirmed, the Floro Caverns might be under the Floro Kingdom since so many Floro Sapiens live here, and King Croacus has his room down there. The other kings of Floro Kingdom are King Croacus I, Queen Croacus II and King Croacus III. They all changed the Flora Kingdom somehow.
Flower-koku (フラワー国), meaning Flower Nation or Flower Country, is an unseen territory only mentioned in the anime movie Super Mario Bros.: Peach-hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen!, an animated adaptation of the events of Super Mario Bros. Little is known about it other than its prince, Haru, owns a Brooch necklace nearly identical to Princess Peach's, and as a result is destined to marry her.
Frankenstein University is a school that is mentioned briefly on the bonus disc from The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 The Complete Series DVD set. It is a school that Kooky von Koopa attended and graduated from. Nothing else is known about Frankenstein University, although it is presumably a horror and/or mad scientist-themed school.
Fungusville is the town where Toad's family lives. It is only mentioned in passing by Gramps during The Super Mario Bros. Super Show! episode "Escape from Koopatraz". Although Toad no longer lives in Fungusville, it's possible that other members of his family, such as his father, still do.
Gangster Supply Store
The Gangster Supply Store is presumably a black market store located in Crime Land that supplies various crime-related goods to criminals. During the events of "The Unzappables", Al Koopone places an order at the Gangster Supply Store for many Unzappable Hats, which he soon receives.
Hatesong Tower is the final area in Luigi's quest in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. Its name is possibly a play on the term "love song". This is where Luigi and his partners fight the Chestnut King (and then Lord Crepe) to save Princess Eclair. Luigi talks about his adventures after Mario comes back with another Crystal Star.
Hawaii Land is a region of Mushroom World, which is presumably named for Hawaii on Earth. It is shown have a very similar climate to Hawaii as well, as Mario dresses up in beach clothes in preparation for a trip to Hawaii Land. However, Toad purposely misleads his friends to the North Pole instead, so that he could receive presents from Santa Claus. Hawaii Land is only mentioned during the events of "Koopa Klaus".
Hell is the place of suffering and punishment that unrighteous souls are sent to after death, as outlined in various religions.
Hell is heavily referenced in the Club Nintendo comic Super Mario in Die Nacht des Grauens. The creature Abigor claims to be the "middleman of Hell", and lives in a monster-filled temple called Infernum, which is a Latin term for Hell. He also states "Welcome to Hell" when Mario and his friends enter the temple in their quest to save Princess Toadstool, who was kidnapped and turned into a zombie by Abigor. Because of what Abigor did to her mind, Toadstool tells her would-be savior, Mario, that his "mother was scraping toilets in Hell."
The Underwhere of Super Paper Mario is often compared to Hell, but it bears much more resemblance to the Greek underworld, Hades. While the sinless are allowed to spend eternity in The Overthere (which bear more similarities to Hell's counterpart, Heaven than to the Greek Elisian Fields), the inhabitants of The Underwhere do not suffer for their crimes. Unlike Hell, The Underwhere was merely a place of boredom, and many other aspects of The Underwhere are references to Hades, strengthening that connection. For example, the River Twygz is a reference to the River Styx, and both have ferrymen who take visitors across.
In the Japanese version of the game Super Mario Galaxy, Melty Molten Galaxy is called "Hell Prominence Galaxy". This is reflected by the Super Mario Galaxy: Original Soundtrack, in which the theme of the galaxy is entitled "Hell Prominence". It is also mentioned in WarioWare: Touched! in Ashley's Song in a controversy.
Hong Kong is a small island, technically a part of China, which is located in Asia. According to Sam Shalam, one of his so-called "genuine Perisan carpets", is in fact manufactured in Hong Kong, implying that it is unauthentic.
Iowa is one of the fifty states of the United States of America. During the events of "Mush-Rumors", when Norman of Kansas and his family are lost in the Mushroom Kingdom, Norman guesses that they might have driven to Iowa.
Jazzafrazz Town is a town which Luigi travels to in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. It is the home of the Dayzees. There, he meets a Dayzee named Hayzee. Hayzee needs Luigi's help in his play for the Jazzafrazz Town Drama Slam. His role in the play is grass. The prize for winning is the Dramalama Plaque, which contains a piece of the Marvelous Compass.
Koopergarten is the supposed Koopa equivalent of kindergarten. Not much is known about Koopergarten, although the curriculum probably has to do with educating young Koopas so that they'll grow up to respect their own kind, and learn to despise the Mushroom Kingdom.
Lemon Soda Ocean Trench
Lemon Soda Ocean Trench is a location under the ocean. It is the location of the Sunken Ghost Ship in Super Mario World. Geographically, it lays in close proximity to Chocolate Island. The location is only named in the Japanese version of the Sunken Ghost Ship's name.
Los Angeles is the largest city in California, United States. When Luigi visits San Francisco during the events of the game Mario is Missing!, he is asked by a business woman if he had been to Los Angeles, "that other California city", too.
The city of Dinohattan is derived from Manhattan.
Manly Beach is a popular beach in Sydney, Australia. It is mentioned in a pamphlet about Bondi Beach in the game Mario is Missing! The pamphlet says "both Manly and Bondi beaches are popular as great surfing beaches", but also suggests that "Bondi is perhaps the better of the two."
Mario Kart 8 Pit
The Mario Kart 8 Pit is a location where the video series From the Pit takes place with Crew Chief Andrew giving tips and tricks to the players in the game Mario Kart 8. This location includes a kart, tools, and more.
Mario Kart 8 Testing Facility
The Mario Kart 8 Testing Facility is a location where all of the American Mario Kart 8 commercials take place and is run by professional experts. Each test includes a gameplay clip of the corresponding element or item that can be used in the game. The six tests are Super Horn, Lightning Bolt, Boomerang Flower, Piranha Plant, Crazy Plunge and Upside Down.
Mario Kart Emporium
The Mario Kart Emporium is a location where all of the American Mario Kart Wii commercials take place. It is owned by Cowboy Jed and is mentioned in all three of the commercials. The Mario Kart Emporium is apparently a car, or rather, kart, dealership where one can buy any character's karts from Mario Kart Wii, no matter what condition they're in ("squidded", blown up, and shrunk are three of the conditions shown).
Mario Kart TV Headquarters
The Mario Kart TV Headquarters is a location located in Toad City. It is only mentioned in the course Toad's Turnpike from Mario Kart 8. Lakitu works at this place, filming races and battles for the players to watch during the game.
Mount Everest is the highest mountain on Earth. It is mentioned in the game Mario is Missing! (where it is referred to as simply Everest) by a tourist who claims to have climbed this mountain as well as Fuji.
Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya. It is mentioned in the game Mario is Missing! by a tourist who claims to have climbed Everest and Fuji and now plans to climb Mount Kenya "just to keep [his] reputation up."
Muhshroom University is presumably an institute of higher education located somewhere in the Mushroom Kingdom. According to the Super Mario 64 Nintendo Player's Guide, during the time of said game, experts at this university's Evil-Villains-Who-Plot-To-Rule-The-World department hold a debate over what Bowser's ultimate plan is, acting under the assumption that his seizure of the castle and its Power Stars is just the first step in a wider plan. The two leading theories were that he either wants to turn Princess Peach and the Mushroom Retainers he kidnapped into some sort of zombie army to take over the world, or to extend the boundaries of his painting worlds until they encompass all of reality.
Mushville is mentioned in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, when the Quiz Thwomp is asking questions. It is mentioned in the question: "Where is the Crystal Star?", and Rogueport, Hooktail Castle, Mushville, or Petalburg being the possible answers.
Mystical Ninja Elementary
The Mystical Ninja Elementary is an elementary school that the ninja girls Kat and Ana attend in addition to the Diamond Kindergarten. It is mentioned in the instruction booklet of WarioWare: Touched! by Kat and Ana who tell to be the stars of the elementary's school play. In the manual of WarioWare, Inc.: Mega Party Game$!, Kat is already said to attend a ninja school, which is possibly the Mystical Ninja Elementary.
Nebraska is one of the fifty states of the United States of America. During the events of "Mush-Rumors", when Norman of Kansas and his family are lost in the Mushroom Kingdom, Norman first guesses they are in Iowa. When he concludes the Mushroom Kingdom isn't Iowa, he guesses they instead drove to Nebraska.
The Netherworld is a location in many branches of mythology and religion. The Netherworld is generally considered to be the place where recently deceased souls depart to in the afterlife. On occasion, the Netherworld is associated with Hell, as they have both are implied as located beneath the earth. In Chapter 3 of Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, the Netherworld is mentioned by a fighter in the Glitz Pit. As Craw-Daddy prepares to fight Mario and his partners, he claims that he will drag them "through the gate to the Netherworld." In addition, the Netherworld is also where the Shadow Queen is banished to after her defeat.
Newark is the largest city in the state of New Jersey, and is located near New York City. In "The Great Hereafter", it's revealed that Grandma Mario was buried in Newark. When Grandma Mario possesses the body of The Old Psychic Lady with the Evil Eye Who Reads Fortunes and Knows Everything Before it Happens, she implies that Newark is not a pleasant place to live.
Pastadena is a place that is briefly mentioned by Sam Shalam during the events of "Mario and the Red Baron Koopa". It is presumably a town located within the vicinity of Pasta Land, and is named after Pasadena, California. Sam Shalam mentions Pastadena when he tells Mario and Luigi that he recently received a spiffy Magic Carpet from a little old lady from there, referencing the song "The Little Old Lady from Pasadena".
Plumpbelly Village is a town on the Strudel Continent, possibly ruled by the Waffle Kingdom. It is the location of one of the pieces of the Marvelous Compass that Luigi retrieve during the events of Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door.
When Luigi arrives, the town is ruled by a two-headed snake named Hizza, who demands regular sacrifices of the village's women. Luigi offers to don a ceremonial chiffon bride's dress and go in place of the mayor's daughter, who is next up. Jerry, the cherry-shaped Bob-omb, horrified by the sight of Luigi in a dress, followed him to try and stop him, but Hizza takes Luigi into his lair. Luigi darts around the cave and makes the snake eat itself, disappearing in a puff of smoke. After Luigi emerges, the mayor offers his daughter's hand in marriage. Luigi considers it, but that night, while staying in the village, he decides against it, convinced that Princess Eclair is his future bride, and sneaks out of the town. Jerry follows Luigi and Blooey, making it his life mission to make sure that Luigi never dresses in drag again.
The Pudding Continent is a land only spoken of in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. It is one of the many lands that Luigi goes to in his quest to save Princess Eclair. It is located in her kingdom, the Waffle Kingdom.
A concept art found in Donkey Kong Country Returns depicts a world made of giant bananas, cherries, chocolate tubes, cake and cream with banana slices, called Pudding Wonderland. It never appears in the game, but slightly resembles the Golden Temple.
Rumblebump Volcano is a place Luigi visits in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door to retrieve a Marvelous Compass piece. He tells Mario he met a giant stone-guardian with a weak spot at his head looking like a ruby, and he threw his Blooper friend Blooey at it, which defeated the guardian. When Mario asks Blooey, though, he finds out that Luigi really missed and that the Blooey ended up in the magma.
In "Plumbers Academy", Russia is mentioned when Mikhail Gorbachev, the last president of the Soviet Union comes to visit Brooklyn. In "Glasnuts", Mikhail Gorbachev pays a visit to Mario Brothers Plumbing, so that he could learn how to make pizza, and open his own franchise in Russia.
The game Mario & Sonic at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games takes place in this country where the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games were being held.
Scotland is a country in Europe that makes up part of the United Kingdom. Luigi briefly mentions Scotland during "Rowdy Roddy's Rotten Pipes", when he tried to convince Rowdy Roddy Piper that his broken bagpipes are actually an imported Scottish vacuum cleaner from the fictitious McBronx Vacuum Company.
Squirpia is a long-forgotten kingdom mentioned in Super Paper Mario, that once existed in Outer Space. Very little is known about this mysterious civilization, other than that it was supposedly very advanced. It is mentioned in-game that 1,500 years ago, the Tribe of Ancients visited Squirpina XIV, the then-queen of Squirpia, and entrusted her with the Blue Pure Heart. In order to protect the world, Squirpina hid the treasure in the Whoa Zone, an apparently important place to the kingdom, and proceeded to place her young son Squirps inside a hibernation capsule, so that, when the time came, he would be able to guide the heroes to the Pure Heart in order to collect it.
Squirps explains his story to the heroes at the end of Chapter 4; however, he does not make it clear how Squirpia fell, and so the reason is left unknown throughout the rest of the game. Following the defeat of the final boss, the young prince can be found speaking to a statue of his mother in the Whoa Zone, where he declares that he will restore his kingdom someday. He is never shown to accomplish this goal, though it is plausible that he does eventually succeed.
The Star Realm is an area briefly mentioned in Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time. It is talked of by the gate in the Star Shrine when he commands Luigi to get the Aurora Block, something which is apparently very sought after (and even celebrated by) by the denizens of this mysterious place.
The Star Realm most likely includes the Star Shrine, and may or may not include Star Hill. Other star-themed areas not seen in Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time (such as the Star World and Star Road) could also make up the Star Realm, or it might be an individual area in itself.
The Sticker Star is mentioned to be Kersti's home in the 3DS game Paper Mario: Sticker Star. It was mentioned numerous times in the game, being the place that the Sticker Comet comes from as well as Kersti. When the Royal Stickers were scattered across the land, Kersti mentions to Mario that she can't go back to Sticker Star without the Royal Stickers. Not much else is known about the Sticker Star other than a few tidbits Kersti mentions.
The Sticker Star places a high value on paperization and has an academic system that requires students to learn and study paperization in elementary school.
The Strudel Continent is the continent in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door that Mario's brother, Luigi has his simultaneous adventure on as Mario was saving the Princess. Princess Eclair is the supposed leader there.
Tanzania is a country in Africa. It is mentioned in the game Mario is Missing! as one of the three countries - besides Kenya and Ethiopia - to be "eagerly excavated" in order to solve the mystery where human beings first lived.
Toadland Yard is an implied police headquarters given an occasional mentions in Mario Party Advance. As is with other implied things, little is known about Toadland Yard.
Toadland Yard is mentioned in the game's manual and Shroomlock's character list description in-game. These mentions respectively describe Shroomlock as "with" and "of" Toadland Yard, suggesting that he works for the organization. Shroomlock says "It's Shroomlock, from Toadland Yard", whenever a quest features him.
These mentions leave much to be learned about Toadland Yard. As a matter of fact, it is possible that Toadland Yard is not even a police group at all, but its namesake seems to confirm the fact that it is: Toadland Yard, in addition to having a namesake in "Toad", is named after Scotland Yard (whose actual name is "New Scotland Yard"), a British police headquarters. Scotland Yard is famous for being included in several fictional crime stories such as those involving the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, who happens to be Shroomlock's namesake. (In Sherlock Holmes stories involving Scotland Yard, Holmes, unlike Shroomlock, did not work for the headquarters; instead, he often teamed up or even competed with its operatives.)
In The Mario Monster Mash, Dr. Frankenstein comes from Transylvania to Brooklyn under the alias Frank N. Stein and becomes Mario and Luigi's next-door neighbour, Transylvania being shown on one of Frankenstein's moving boxes.
University Of Goom
Vanda is an alternate dimension mentioned in Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars. Culex, an optional boss in the game, is a Dark Knight from this dimension. He is battled in an inter-dimensional gateway that connects Mario's dimension to Vanda. However, after Mario defeats Culex, the door in Monstro Town that leads to the gateway disappears, replaced with a solid rock wall.
After Mario leaves home to find Princess Peach in the town of Rogueport, Luigi is once again left alone. However, a letter arrives for the Mario bros. which Luigi can't resist to peek at. The letter was from Crepe, the Minister of the Waffle Kingdom. According to the letter, the lovely Princess Éclair was kidnapped by the vile Chestnut King and the kingdom needed assistance from the great hero Mario. However, since Mario was not around, Luigi went in his place.
When Luigi arrives in the Waffle Kingdom, he is given a piece of the Marvelous Compass. If Luigi could find all the pieces, he would be able to track down Princess Eclair. After much toil and trouble (and quite a bit of luck), Luigi collects all the pieces and heads to Hatesong Tower to find the princess. However, he actually finds the evil Chestnut King, and the two engage in an epic battle. Ultimately Princess Eclair appears and interrupts the battle. Apparently, the princess and the Chestnut King were lovers but the king was transformed into a monster by Minister Crepe, who was in fact a dark sorcerer. As it turns out, Crepe had orchestrated events so that Luigi would reassemble the Magical Compass for him. Once he had the compass, Crepe would use its power to conquer the Waffle Kingdom, saying the Luff empire will rise again. However, Luigi and his allies defeat the shadowy Crepe. As a result, peace is returned to the Waffle Kingdom.
Names in Other Languages
Wichita is the largest city in Kansas, and is the hometown of Norman and his family. Although it is never seen during the events of "Mush-Rumors", Norman's wife, after her family had been rescued from the Koopas by Mario and Luigi, tells the two plumbers to look them up if they ever come to Wichita.
Wild Waldo's One-of-a-Kind Amusement Park
Wild Waldo's One-of-a-Kind Amusement Park is an amusement park supposedly located either in or near Kansas. The mascot of the park is said to be a character named Uncle Waldo. Norman and his family intended on heading there for an outing during the events of "Mush-Rumors", but on their way to the park, Norman accidentally drive through a Warp Pipe hidden in a tunnel, which leads to the Mushroom Kingdom. During their visit, Norman's family mistake the Mushroom Kingdom for the actual amusement park. Later on, Mario and Luigi lead Norman's family back to the Real World, where they continue to drive to the amusement park.
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, referred to in-game as simply Woolsthorpe, is the birthplace of Isaac Newton, and where he first developed his theories on calculus, optics, and gravity, as mentioned in Mario's Time Machine.
Yonkers is a city in the state of New York, which borders the northern end of New York City. Dr. Sigmund Fruitcake hails from Yonkers, as implied by the title of his sole appearance, "Bonkers from Yonkers".
Zanzibar is part of the country of Tanzania. When Luigi travels to Nairobi during the events of Mario is Missing!, not knowing where he is, a business woman in the city give him a hint by saying he is "in the largest city between Addis Ababa and Zanzibar."