From the Super Mario Wiki
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Cannonballs are heavy metal spheres that are launched from cannons at hypersonic speeds. Mario and Luigi were able to stop the lethal shots by stomping them in mid-air; they could also be dodged relatively easily.
Super Mario series
Super Mario Bros. 3
Super Mario Galaxy
Cannonballs reappear in Super Mario Galaxy with a more technological appearance. These newer projectiles sport a white line around their center and two yellow circles on opposite sides. In this most recent appearance cannonballs are still fired from cannons, most of which are located in Battlerock Galaxy and Dreadnought Galaxy. One notable difference with these cannonballs is that rather than simply colliding with the hero they explode upon impact. This will hit Mario and knock him down; it may also result in him being thrown off a platform or into a Black Hole. Only Star Bits are useful against cannonballs. Sometimes, when a cannonball is blown up by a Star Bit, it will produce a coin, but sometimes they will blow up into nothing.
New Super Mario Bros. Wii
Cannonballs make another return in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, and they only appear in World 8's airship. The giant cannonballs also return from Super Mario Bros. 3. Since the cannons are always found in a group, there is a high chance for the player to earn endless 1-Ups by jumping on each cannonball consecutively without touching the ground.
New Super Mario Bros. U
Cannonballs also appear in the Wii U title, New Super Mario Bros. U, where they act just like the ones in the predecessors. They can only be found in The Mighty Cannonship, from Soda Jungle. There is also a Challenge, consisting of jumping on many Cannonballs without falling to make many 1-Ups; the challenge is called Airship 1-Up Rally. Cannonballs don't reappear in New Super Luigi U.
Super Mario 3D World
Super Mario Maker
Cannonballs reappear in Super Mario Maker, where they will be fired from cannons. Shaking a cannon will make it produce red cannonballs, which are much faster than normal ones. When a Mushroom is dragged onto a cannon, it will shoot Giant Cannonballs.
Mario & Luigi series
The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3
Cannonballs occasionally appeared in several episodes of The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3.
Mario is Missing!
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U
Cannonballs serve as Bowser Jr.'s neutral special move in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS / Wii U, with his special being named Clown Cannon. When Bowser Jr. uses it, a cannon appears from the mouth of his Junior Clown Car and he must charge. He then shoots a cannonball. The more it charges, the more distance it travels and powerful it becomes. Depending on the range, it deals more or less damage.
Bowser Jr. has two alternate custom moves for Clown Cannon: Piercing Cannon and Air Cannon. Piercing Cannon can go through multiple targets at the cost of damage. Air Cannon makes a wind that pushes opponents, but it has less range than his standard special move.